A Pilot Study of Metformin Therapy in Patients With Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Untreated CLL

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01750567
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : December 17, 2012
Last Update Posted : February 5, 2018
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center

Brief Summary:
Metformin is an antidiabetic drug which is an inexpensive and generally well tolerated medication. More recently metformin has been shown to act against carcinomas by two mechanisms: 1) an indirect, insulin‐dependent mechanism which sensitizes tissues to insulin, inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis, and stimulates uptake of glucose in muscle, thereby reducing fasting blood glucose and circulating levels of insulin, lowering the pro survival activity of the insulin/INSR axis, and 2) a direct, insulin‐independent mechanism which activates the AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and leads to inhibition of the mTOR pathway. Given the investigators preliminary published data on insulin and mTOR inhibition[1] metformin is an attractive candidate for a pilot clinical trial in CLL patients.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Drug: Metformin Phase 2

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 40 participants
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase II Pilot Study of Metformin Therapy in Patients With Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Untreated CLL Patients With Genomic Deletion 11q
Study Start Date : October 2012
Estimated Primary Completion Date : January 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : January 2019

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Metformin (Glucophage)
The starting dose of metformin will be 500 mg po daily for one week. The dose can be escalated to 500 mg twice a day after one week, and further escalated to the final dose of 1000 mg twice a day in week 3 if the medication is tolerated without adverse side effects (refer to holding parameters described in section 9.3.3). All doses should be administered with food to decrease gastrointestinal upset.
Drug: Metformin
Metformin is an antidiabetic drug which is an inexpensive and generally well tolerated medication.
Other Name: Glucophage

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Time to treatment failure [ Time Frame: every 3 months ]

    Time to treatment failure: While patients are on metformin therapy, time to treatment failure will be defined as one or all of the following criteria:

    1. ALC > 5000 on 3 occasions after start of metformin treatment and increasing by 25% or more on each occasion, which will be measured every 3 months.
    2. An increase of Rai Stage by one stage.
    3. An increase in any lymph node by >50% as assessed by either physical exam (all patients) or CT scanning (only if ordered as part of routine clinical management).
    4. Worsening cytopenias (Hemoglobin <11 g/dl or platelet count <100,000)

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Time to first therapy (TTFT) in previously untreated 11q CLL subsets only. [ Time Frame: from time of diagnosis to time of first treatment with anti‐neoplastic chemotherapy. ]
    to evaluate TTFT in untreated patients, the product‐limit method of Kaplan and Meier will be used similarly to the primary endpoint. The main difference between this endpoint and the primary endpoint is that TTFT will be defined from the date of CLL diagnosis for untreated delq11 patients

  2. changes in the rate of increase of absolute lymphocyte count while on metformin therapy [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    longitudinal lymphocyte counts will be modeled using mixed models methodology, whereby both fixed effects (dose of metformin) and random effects (intercept - starting lymphocyte count) can be modeled.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Patients should have a confirmed diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia defined as all of the following:

    ALC > 5000 Positive for either CD19 or CD 20 together with CD23 and CD5. Less than 55% atypical cells

  2. Patients who relapse after receiving a one or more courses of fludarabine, bendamustine, cytoxan, rituxan, chlorambucil, or campath based therapy.
  3. Patients should have findings of relapse by one or both of the following:

    ALC > 5000 on 2 consecutive occasions and increasing Any increase in lymphadenopathy over best response that has persisted for more than 3 months

  4. Patient with confirmed del11q mutation may be included if untreated.
  5. Age > or equal to 18 years old and < 80 years of age during the course of therapy
  6. ECOG performance 0‐2 (see Appendix A)
  7. Life expectancy > 12 months
  8. Patients must have normal organ function as defined as below:

    AST and ALT < 2 times the upper limit of normal alkaline phosphatase < 2 ULN serum bilirubin < ULN (exception of Gilbert disease) serum creatinine less than or equal to 1.5 in males, or 1.4 in female GFR > 60

  9. Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document
  10. Patient must be able to drink and eat more than 75% of their usual daily meals.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Patients with active CLL disease requiring urgent chemotherapy
  2. Patients may not be receiving any other investigational agents.
  3. Patients less than 30 days from last treatment for CLL.
  4. History of allergic reactions attributed to metformin or other biguanides.
  5. Known diabetes (type 1 or 2), fasting glucose > or equal to 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL), or HgbA1C > 6.5
  6. Currently taking metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones or insulin for any reason
  7. Current or planned pregnancy or lactation in women of child bearing age (confirmed by negative pregnancy test prior to start of therapy).
  8. Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection and sepsis, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
  9. Conditions which would increase risk of lactic acidosis including:

Known alcoholism or ingestion of more than 3 alcoholic beverages per day History of congestive heart failure defined as NYHA class III or IV 17 History of metabolic acidosis Ongoing or active infection concerning for sepsis or SIRS

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01750567

United States, Michigan
University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center Recruiting
Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States, 48109
Contact: Sami Malek, MD    734-936-5310   
Contact: Erlene Seymour, MD    734-647-2892   
Principal Investigator: Sami Malek, MD         
Sub-Investigator: Daniel Lebovic, MD         
Sub-Investigator: Erlene Seymour, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center
Principal Investigator: Sami Malek, MD University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center

Responsible Party: University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center Identifier: NCT01750567     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: UMCC 2012.025
First Posted: December 17, 2012    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: February 5, 2018
Last Verified: February 2018

Keywords provided by University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center:
Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
untreated CLL patients
genomic deletion 11q

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Leukemia, Lymphoid
Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Lymphatic Diseases
Immunoproliferative Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Leukemia, B-Cell
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs