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Vitamin D and Mammographic Breast Density (EVIDENSE)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01747720
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : December 12, 2012
Last Update Posted : May 24, 2017
Quebec Breast Cancer Foundation
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
CHU de Quebec-Universite Laval

Brief Summary:
There is some evidence that vitamin D could be used to reduce breast cancer risk. Randomized controlled trials would provide definitive evidence about this effect. However, trials with breast cancer as outcome are expensive and time-consuming. Use of surrogate outcomes has been advocated to accelerate progress in the identification of interventions that could prevent breast cancer. Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest breast cancer risk indicators and is already used as a surrogate outcome in several breast cancer prevention trials. The aim of this double-blind randomized controlled trial is to determine whether daily oral supplementation with vitamin D3 (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 IU) over a period of 1 year reduces breast density in premenopausal women compared to placebo. A total of 376 women (94 per arm) who live in Quebec City will be recruited. Showing that vitamin D reduces breast density would provide strong support for the idea that vitamin D can be a safe and inexpensive approach for the prevention of breast cancer.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Breast Cancer Dietary Supplement: Vitamin D3 Dietary Supplement: Placebo Not Applicable

Detailed Description:



- to determine whether adding oral supplementation with vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) at doses of 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 IU/d to baseline total vitamin D intake over a period of 12 months reduces mammographic breast density among premenopausal women at moderate to high risk of breast cancer who reside in the Quebec City area, Canada.


  • to assess the net increase in 25(OH)D levels resulting from this vitamin D3 supplementation;
  • to document the compliance with, and safety of, supplementation with tested doses of vitamin D3 over one year.

OUTLINE This study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial among premenopausal women who live in the Quebec City area and have ≥ 20% breast density at baseline.

The intervention consists of the addition, over baseline total vitamin D intake from food and supplements, of three different doses of vitamin D3 (1000, 2000 or 3000 IU/day) for a period of 12 months. There are four arms in the trial:

  • Arm 1: 1,000 IU vitamin D3/d (1 tablet vitamin D 1000 IU + 2 tablets placebo);
  • Arm 2: 2,000 IU vitamin D3/d (2 tablets vitamin D 1000 IU + 1 tablet placebo);
  • Arm 3: 3,000 IU vitamin D3/d (3 tablets vitamin D 1000 IU);
  • Arm 4: placebo (3 tablets placebo/d).

Vitamin D tablets (1000 IU tablets) and the placebo tablets are undistinguishable in size, shape, color and taste, and are manufactured by the same company.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 405 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial of the Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Breast Density in Premenopausal Women
Study Start Date : October 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date : May 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : May 17, 2017

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Vitamin D

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) 1000 IU
Oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation, 1000 IU daily, for 12 months
Dietary Supplement: Vitamin D3
Given orally
Other Name: Cholecalciferol

Experimental: Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) 2000 IU
Oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation, 2000 IU daily, for 12 months
Dietary Supplement: Vitamin D3
Given orally
Other Name: Cholecalciferol

Experimental: Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) 3000 IU
Oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation, 3000 IU daily, for 12 months
Dietary Supplement: Vitamin D3
Given orally
Other Name: Cholecalciferol

Placebo Comparator: Placebo
daily, for 12 months
Dietary Supplement: Placebo

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Mammographic breast density [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Difference in breast density between baseline and at 12 months

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 55 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • be premenopausal at baseline;
  • have breast density of at least 20% at baseline;
  • have normal baseline serum calcium (2,12-2,60 mmol/L) and serum creatinine (45-85 μmol/L);
  • agree to have her mammogram at 12 months of follow-up at the same mammography clinic (same site) as the one where the mammogram at recruitment was done.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • taking > 400 IU/day of supplemental vitamin D and refusing to reduce (≤ 400 IU/day) or cease such intake;
  • taking > 600 mg/day of supplemental calcium and refusing to reduce (≤ 600 mg/day) or cease such intake;
  • have contra-indications for use of vitamin D supplementation (hypersensitivity to vitamin D or its analogues; a history of renal calculi or hypercalcemia, hypervitaminosis D);
  • taking medication suspected to interact with vitamin D: frequent use of antacids containing magnesium or aluminium; regular use of anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbital), digoxin, cholestyramine, colestipol, orlistat, mineral oil;
  • have a personal history of breast cancer;
  • have a personal history of cancer other than non-melanoma skin cancer within 5 last years;
  • have had breast reduction or augmentation including breast implantation (or planning to undergo such surgery during the trial);
  • be pregnant or planning a pregnancy in the next year.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01747720

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Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec, Hôpital du Saint-Sacrement
Québec, Canada, G1S 4L8
Sponsors and Collaborators
CHU de Quebec-Universite Laval
Quebec Breast Cancer Foundation
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Principal Investigator: Jacques Brisson, M.D., Sc.D. Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec, et Faculté de médecine de l'Université Laval
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Responsible Party: CHU de Quebec-Universite Laval Identifier: NCT01747720    
Other Study ID Numbers: DR-002-1373
First Posted: December 12, 2012    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 24, 2017
Last Verified: May 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Plan Description: We will not share IPD. Results of the study are published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention.
Keywords provided by CHU de Quebec-Universite Laval:
breast cancer
mammographic breast density
vitamin D
randomized controlled trial
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Breast Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Breast Diseases
Skin Diseases
Vitamin D
Growth Substances
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Calcium-Regulating Hormones and Agents