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Renal Stent Placement for the Treatment of Renal Artery Stenosis in Patients With Resistant Hypertension (ARTISAN)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01673373
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : August 28, 2012
Results First Posted : August 13, 2019
Last Update Posted : November 20, 2020
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Atrium Medical Corporation

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this trial is to test how well the iCAST™ RX Stent works in patients diagnosed with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and whether or not increased blood flow by the stent will help to control blood pressure.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Renal Artery Stenosis Hypertension, Renovascular Device: iCAST™ Rx Stent System Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

This is a prospective, single-arm, multicenter clinical trial that will take place at up to 25 US/ Outside US (OUS) sites. Primary endpoints have been determined to show the safety, effectiveness, and clinical outcomes of the iCAST™ RX Stent System. Safety and effectiveness will be evaluated based on the primary patency rate at 9-months on a per lesion basis evaluated against a performance goal of published studies with bare-metal stents. The primary clinical endpoint will assess the improvement in Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) at 9-months as compared to baseline Systolic Blood Pressure.

Eligible subjects will undergo a two-week Medical Documentation Screening period to confirm resistant hypertension (SBP ≥ 155mmHg) while on maximum tolerable doses of ≥ three anti-hypertensive medications from at least three distinct classes of drugs, one of which must be a diuretic.

There must be documented clinical evidence to support likelihood of angiographic findings > 80% whether it is Duplex Ultrasound (DUS), Computed Tomography angiogram (CTa), Magnetic Resonance angiogram (MRa) or other medical evidence. After meeting screening and clinical eligibility criteria, subjects will undergo a baseline assessment for angiographic eligibility. After angiographic documentation of a ≥ 80% renal artery stenosis or Fraction Flow Reserve (FFR) < 0.8 is confirmed, the subject may be enrolled in the trial by placement of the investigational device.

The 9-month visit will include a follow-up DUS of the target renal artery. If the DUS is non-diagnostic due to an imaging problem, such as overlying bowel gas or body habitus, a second DUS may be attempted. If the DUS is indicative of ≥ 60% stenosis as determined by the core laboratory, or the second DUS remains non-diagnostic, a contrast angiogram will be used to assess the degree of restenosis of the covered stent(s).

Clinical follow-up visits will be required for all enrolled subjects at 30-days, 9-months, 12-months, 24-months, and 36-months. A 6-month and 18-month visit will occur via telephone to collect medication usage and Adverse Events (AEs) only. The 36-month clinic office visit will be required as the final safety visit.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 68 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: ARTISAN: iCAST™ RX De Novo Stent Placement for the Treatment of Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis in Patients With Resistant Hypertension
Actual Study Start Date : October 23, 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 27, 2018
Actual Study Completion Date : October 26, 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: iCAST RX™ Stent Systen
All enrolled subjects will receive the iCAST RX™ Stent System
Device: iCAST™ Rx Stent System
All enrolled subjects will undergo primary stenting of the target lesion(s) by placement of the iCAST™ RX Stent System.
Other Name: iCAST™ RX

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Primary Patency [ Time Frame: 9 months ]
    Primary patency rate at 9 months was defined as continuous patency without the occurrence of a total occlusion of the original lesion, without a re-intervention to treat a partial or total occlusion of the stented segment, or bypass of the stented segment due to clinically-driven restenosis or occlusion.

  2. Systolic Blood Pressure [ Time Frame: Baseline and 9 months ]
    Change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 9 months as compared to baseline SBP.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Procedure-Related Major Adverse Events (MAE) [ Time Frame: 30 days, 9 months ]

    The occurence of procedure-related MAEs is reported as a percentage of subjects with MAE. Inclusive of:

    1. Procedure- or device-related occurrence of death
    2. Q-Wave myocardial infarction (MI)
    3. Clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR)
    4. Significant embolic events defined as unanticipated kidney/bowel infarct, clinically driven by symptoms of abdominal or back pain and confirmed with CT scan or open surgery; lower extremity ulceration or gangrene; or kidney failure.

  2. Technical Success [ Time Frame: Day of Procedure ]
    Technical success is defined as successful delivery and deployment of the iCAST™ RX Stent System with ≤ 30% residual angiographic stenosis after covered stent deployment (including post-dilatation) assessed via quantitative vascular analysis (QVA) by an independent core laboratory.

  3. Acute Procedural Success [ Time Frame: Day of Procedure, prior to hospital discharge ]
    Acute procedural success is defined as technical success without the occurrence of MAE prior to hospital discharge.

  4. Target Lesion Revascularization (TLR) [ Time Frame: 9 months ]

    Target Lesion Revascularization (TLR) is measured as the proportion of subjects-lesions that require a clinically-driven reintervention of the target lesion through 9 months.

    a. A clinically-driven TLR is defined as a TLR (percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTA), bare metal stent or repeat covered stent deployment, or surgical bypass) due to documented recurrent hypertension from 30-days post-procedure level and/or deterioration in renal function from baseline value, associated with angiographic core laboratory adjudication of a ≥ 60% diameter covered stent restenosis.

  5. Rate of Incidental TLR [ Time Frame: 9 months ]
    The rate of incidental TLR is the rate of TLRs not meeting the definition of a clinically-driven TLR.

  6. Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) Control [ Time Frame: Baseline and 30 days ]
    The change in SBP from baseline to 30 days

  7. SBP Control [ Time Frame: Baseline and 9 months ]
    The change in SBP from baseline to 9 months

  8. Secondary Patency Rate [ Time Frame: 9 months ]
    Secondary patency rate at 9 months after a clinically-driven TLR which restores patency after total occlusion.

  9. Change in Number of Anti-Hypertensive Medications [ Time Frame: Baseline and 9 months ]
    Change in number of anti-hypertensive medications as compared to baseline.

  10. Change in Renal Function [ Time Frame: Baseline and 30 days ]
    Renal function compared to baseline as measured by estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) at 30 days.

  11. Change in Renal Function [ Time Frame: Baseline and 9 months ]
    Renal function compared to baseline as measured by estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) at 9 months.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

General Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Age ≥ 18 at the time of informed consent.
  2. Subject or subject's legal representative have been informed of the nature of the trial, agrees to participate, and has signed an Institutional Review Board (IRB)/Ethics Committee (EC) approved Informed Consent Form (ICF).
  3. Subjects that have bilateral kidneys or a solitary functioning kidney with Renal Artery Stenosis in at least one kidney and an average Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) ≥ 155mmHg.
  4. Subject has a history of maximum tolerable dose of ≥ 3 anti-hypertensive medications of different classes, one of which must be a diuretic (for at least two weeks prior to Medical Documentation Screening period).

    a. A documented history for a minimum of 3 months showing reasonable and aggressive efforts to manage hypertension prior to consent. This must include the use of a broad variety of medications that have been used and failed or not tolerated.

  5. Subject must have documented clinical evidence to support likelihood of angiographic findings > 80% whether it is DUS, CTa, MRa or other medical evidence.
  6. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I, II, or III the time of trial enrollment.

Note: When a subject has bilateral Renal Artery Stenosis both of which require stenting, it is recommended to treat both kidneys with an iCAST™ RX Stent System during the index procedure. In the event that a subject needs a renal stenting procedure staged for renal protection, it is important that the Investigator treats the second renal artery with an iCAST™ RX Stent System after 30 days of the index procedure. If subjects with bilateral stenosis have only one lesion that meets protocol inclusion criteria that lesion should be treated per protocol. The recommendation is to NOT treat the second non-qualifying lesion, however if the operator feels strongly it is indicated, then they should treat per standard of care after 30-days post index procedure in order to comply with exclusion criteria #10.

Subjects with flash pulmonary edema are allowed into the trial should they meet all other Inclusion and Exclusion criteria.

Angiographic Anatomic Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Angiographic diameter renal artery stenosis ≥ 80% involving unilateral or bilateral renal arteries.

    a. The degree of percent diameter stenosis for all lesions intended to be treated, must be confirmed via one of the following methods: i. Manual or automated measurement with calipers ii. Measured Flow Fraction Reserve (FFR) < 0.8 using a pressure wire iii. Measured translesional peak pressure gradient of > 21 mmHg after induced hyperemia via dopamine or papaverine using a 4 Fr or less catheter or pressure wire.

    b. Subjects with 60-79% angiographic stenosis who have confirmed FFR < 0.8 may be enrolled.

  2. Renal pole-to-pole length > 8cm (per visual estimate).
  3. Target lesion length ≤ 16mm per vessel (per visual estimate).
  4. Renal artery vessel diameter ≥ 5.0mm and ≤ 7.0mm (per visual estimate).
  5. Lesion originating ≤ 15mm of the renal ostium.

General Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Subject's estimated life expectancy is < 12 months.
  2. Subject has a history of transplanted kidney(s), has had another recent organ transplant or polycystic kidney disease.
  3. Subject with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤ 25 mL/min/1.73 m2
  4. Subject has a history of bleeding diathesis or coagulopathy or refuses blood transfusions.
  5. Subject has a known contraindication to heparin, aspirin, thienopyridine, other anti-coagulant/antithrombotic therapies, contrast media, stainless steel, and/or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).
  6. Subject has had a previous renal bypass operation, a bypass is planned, or the target lesion is located within or beyond a bypass graft.
  7. Subject has received a thrombolytic agent within the past 30 days.
  8. Subject has documented acute pulmonary edema or systolic heart failure with ejection fraction < 30% and/or hospitalization requiring intubation and ventilation support for this diagnosis within the previous 90 days or hypertensive emergencies defined as resulting in organ damage.
  9. Concurrent enrollment in any investigational trial wherein subject's participation has not been completed.
  10. Subject has had a planned or anticipated cardiovascular surgical or interventional procedure outside of the affected renal artery (including, but not limited to, aortic, renal, cardiac, carotid, femoro-popliteal, and below the knee) within 30 days prior to the index procedure and prior to completion of the 30 day follow-up.
  11. Subject has suffered a stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) in the past 3 months.
  12. Subject is pregnant, lactating, or is of child-bearing potential and plans to become pregnant during the follow-up trial period.
  13. Subject with significant valvular disease.
  14. Subject with known significant proteinuria > 2+ or > 2.0gm/d.
  15. Subject with known bilateral upper-extremity arterial stenosis that result in spuriously low arm pressures or without the ability to gain reliable blood pressure measurements in at least one upper extremity.
  16. Subject with active sepsis.
  17. Subject with serum creatinine ≥ 3.0mg/dL.
  18. Subject with NYHA Class IV at the time of enrollment.
  19. Subject is on hemodialysis.
  20. Subject has a history of renal aneurysm.
  21. Subject with cardiogenic shock.
  22. Subject with cardiomyopathy.
  23. Subject has an uncontrolled concurrent illness, including but not limited to ongoing or active infection or active autoimmune disease requiring immunosuppressive therapy.
  24. Any subject with clinically significant cardiovascular, respiratory, neurologic, hepatic, endocrine, major systematic disease, making implementation or interpretation of the protocol or protocol results difficult or who in the opinion of the investigator would not be a good candidate for enrollment.

Angiographic Anatomic Exclusion Criteria:

  1. The planned site of intervention is totally occluded or has an anatomic configuration likely to prohibit adequate dilatation, and/or passage or implantation of the investigational device.
  2. Subject has multiple ipsilateral lesions of the target renal artery that cannot be covered by a single stent.
  3. There is a previously implanted stent in the target vessel or there is a previously implanted stent in the contralateral vessel < one year.
  4. Subject has fibromuscular dysplasia, in renal artery and/or other vascular bed.
  5. The target lesion site is associated with a thrombus.
  6. Target lesion treated with laser atherectomy, directional atherectomy or other adjuncts to percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTA).
  7. Subject has a critical stenotic (> 70%) small accessory renal artery.
  8. Subject has an abdominal aortic aneurysm > 4.0cm in diameter or a severe atherosclerotic aorta.
  9. Main renal artery length ≤ 15mm precluding the safe deployment of a covered renal stent.
  10. Any lesion that would include blocking of renal artery side branch.
  11. Renal artery stenosis due to dissection of renal artery: spontaneous or traumatic.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01673373

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United States, California
Mission Cardiovascular Research Institute
Fremont, California, United States, 94538
United States, Colorado
Medical Center of the Rockies
Loveland, Colorado, United States, 80538
United States, Florida
Clearwater Cardiovascular and Interventional Consultants
Clearwater, Florida, United States, 33756
United States, Illinois
Advocate Health and Hospitals Corporation
Naperville, Illinois, United States, 60563
United States, Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
United States, Michigan
Beaumont Health Systems
Royal Oak, Michigan, United States, 48073
United States, New Jersey
Holy Name Medical Center
Teaneck, New Jersey, United States, 07666
United States, North Carolina
Mid Carolina Cardiology
Charlotte, North Carolina, United States, 28204
NC Heart and Vascular Research
Raleigh, North Carolina, United States, 27610
United States, Ohio
OhioHealth Research Institute
Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43214
United States, Tennessee
Wellmont CVA Heart Institute
Kingsport, Tennessee, United States, 37660
Tennova Healthcare - Turkey Creek Medical Center
Knoxville, Tennessee, United States, 37934
Sponsors and Collaborators
Atrium Medical Corporation
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Principal Investigator: Ken Rosenfield, MD Massachusetts General Hospital
Principal Investigator: Gary Ansel, MD OhioHealth Research Institute
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Atrium Medical Corporation:
Study Protocol  [PDF] July 15, 2013
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] February 12, 2018

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Responsible Party: Atrium Medical Corporation Identifier: NCT01673373    
Other Study ID Numbers: iCAST™ RX-ARAS-001
First Posted: August 28, 2012    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: August 13, 2019
Last Update Posted: November 20, 2020
Last Verified: November 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by Atrium Medical Corporation:
Renal Artery Stenosis
Renal Artery Obstruction
Renovascular Hypertension
Resistant Hypertension
Renal Revascularization
Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis
Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis (ARAS)
Renal Artery Stenosis (RAS)
Uncontrolled hypertension
Systolic blood pressure
Blood pressure
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Renal Artery Obstruction
Hypertension, Renovascular
Constriction, Pathologic
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Pathological Conditions, Anatomical
Kidney Diseases
Urologic Diseases
Female Urogenital Diseases
Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications
Urogenital Diseases
Male Urogenital Diseases
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Hypertension, Renal