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Vitamin D Supplementation in HIV-infected Youth

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01656070
First Posted: August 2, 2012
Last Update Posted: August 3, 2012
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, University of Milan
  Purpose

Along with its effects on bone metabolism, vitamin D is an important modulator of the immune system. Experimental studies have shown that the active metabolite of vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] is able to skew the T cell compartment into a more anti-inflammatory state, with inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cells and promotion of Th2 and T regulatory subsets.

In the context of HIV infection, in which Th1 subpopulations are devoted to inhibit viral replication, any alteration of the Th1/Th2 balance would be of concern.

The aim of this Randomized Controlled Trial is to test wether oral supplementation with cholecalciferol could be able: 1) to improve vitamin D status and, 2) to play an immunomodulatory role, in vertically HIV-infected children and young adults with hypovitaminosis D.


Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Disease Vitamin D Deficiency Hypovitaminosis D Hyperparathyroidism Drug: oral cholecalciferol 1000000 UI (vitamin D3) Drug: Placebo Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Vitamin D Status and T Cell Phenotype in HIV-infected Youth Supplemented With Cholecalciferol: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, University of Milan:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • frequency of Hypovitaminosis D [serum 25(OH)D < 30 ng/mL] in the Vitamin D receiving group vs placebo group [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Vertically HIV-infected patients aged <30 years and with serum 25(OH)D < 30 ng/mL were randomized into the vitamin D or placebo group. At baseline (0 months), 3, 6 and 9 months, the intervention group received orally 100000 IU of cholecalciferol. Serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, PTH and CD4+ T cells were assessed 3 months before baseline, at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, while Th1-, Th2-, Th17- and Treg-subsets and T-lymphocyte vitamin D receptor at 0, 3 and 12 months


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Effect of oral cholecalciferol supplementation on T cell phenotype in vertically HIV-infected youth with stable HIV diseases [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Vertically HIV-infected patients aged <30 years and with serum 25(OH)D < 30 ng/mL were randomized into the vitamin D or placebo group. At baseline (0 months), 3, 6 and 9 months, the intervention group received orally 100000 IU of cholecalciferol. CD4+ T-cells were assessed 3 months before enrollment (-3 months), at baseline (0 months) and at each visit thereafter (3, 6, 9 and 12 months). T-lymphocyte VDR expression and Th1-, Th2-, Th17- and Treg-lymphocytes were measured at 0, 3 and 12 months.


Enrollment: 50
Study Start Date: April 2011
Study Completion Date: July 2012
Primary Completion Date: July 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Vitamin D

oral cholecalciferol 1000000 UI (vitamin D3).

At 0, 3, 6 and 9 months, the vitamin D group received orally 100000 IU of cholecalciferol suspended in 2 mL of olive oil in sealed plastic syringes labeled with the unique identification numbers.

Drug: oral cholecalciferol 1000000 UI (vitamin D3)
Other Name: DIBASE - ABIOGEN PHARMA Spa
Placebo Comparator: placebo

placebo

At 0, 3, 6 and 9 months, the placebo group received 2 mL of olive oil, in sealed plastic syringes labeled with the unique identification numbers.

Drug: Placebo

Detailed Description:

There is increasing evidence that hypovitaminosis D is common in the general population.

Low dietary intake of vitamin D and reduced exposure to sunlight are probably the major risk factors. A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D has been described in HIV-infected adults, and children. HIV infection itself and antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may be responsible for alteration of vitamin D metabolism. For instance, studies have shown a significant decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25(OH)D] concentration in adults receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Whatever the cause(s) of hypovitaminosis D, because of the importance of vitamin D in bone health, randomized controlled trials (RCT) have been performed to test whether vitamin D supplementation can improve vitamin D status and bone mineral metabolism in HIV-infected children and adolescents.

Along with its effects on bone metabolism, vitamin D is an important modulator of the immune system. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is found in high concentrations in activated T lymphocytes, in small amounts in monocyte/macrophage cells while B lymphocytes do not contain detectable amounts of VDR.

Experimental studies have shown that the active di-hydroxylated metabolite of vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] is able to skew the T cell compartment into a more anti-inflammatory state, with inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cells and promotion of Th2 and T regulatory (Treg) subsets.

In the context of HIV infection, in which Th1 subpopulations are devoted to inhibit viral replication, 16 any alteration of the Th1/Th2 balance would be of concern.

Although all the biological effects of vitamin D are mediated by the 1,25(OH)2D, it is the 25(OH)D to be routinely quantified because of its longer half-life.17 However, HIV-infected subjects may have a defective 1α-hydroxylation of 25(OH)D. Thus, it is important to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation both in terms of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D responses.

This repeated-measures parallel-group RCT is aimed to test wether a 12-month oral supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is able: 1) to increase serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels and, 2) to affect T-cell phenotype in vertically HIV-infected children and young adults with hypovitaminosis D and stable HIV-disease.

Main outcome: to determine the frequency of hypovitaminosis D at 12-month of follow-up among subjects supplemented with oral cholecalciferol versus subjects receiving placebo.

Secondary outcome: to investigate correlations - if any - between serum vitamin D concentration and markers of immune activation (i.e. Th1-, Th2-, Th17- and Treg-lymphocytes count, T-lymphocyte VDR expression)

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 30 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Vertically acquired HIV infection
  • age < 30 years
  • serum 25(OH)D concentration < 30 ng/mL
  • signed written informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • hyperparathyroidism, as detected by an intact serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) ≥ 65 pg/mL
  • Black ethnic group
  • any supplementation with vitamin D in the previous 12 months
  • use of any treatment known to alter vitamin D status in the previous 6 months (excluding ARV)
  • any concomitant severe illness.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01656070


Locations
Italy
Department of Paediatrics - L. Sacco Hospital
Milan, Italy, 20157
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Milan
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Professor Department of Paediatrics, L. Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
  More Information

Publications:
Zadshir A, Tareen N, Pan D, Norris K, Martins D. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among US adults: data from the NHANES III. Ethn Dis. 2005 Autumn;15(4 Suppl 5):S5-97-101.
Bischoff-Ferrari HA. "Vitamin D - why does it matter?" - defining vitamin D deficiency and its prevalence. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 2012;243:3-6. doi: 10.3109/00365513.2012.681938.
Kuehn EW, Anders HJ, Bogner JR, Obermaier J, Goebel FD, Schlöndorff D. Hypocalcaemia in HIV infection and AIDS. J Intern Med. 1999 Jan;245(1):69-73.
Rodríguez M, Daniels B, Gunawardene S, Robbins GK. High frequency of vitamin D deficiency in ambulatory HIV-Positive patients. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009 Jan;25(1):9-14. doi: 10.1089/aid.2008.0183.
Stephensen CB, Marquis GS, Kruzich LA, Douglas SD, Aldrovandi GM, Wilson CM. Vitamin D status in adolescents and young adults with HIV infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May;83(5):1135-41.
Rutstein R, Downes A, Zemel B, Schall J, Stallings V. Vitamin D status in children and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV infection. Clin Nutr. 2011 Oct;30(5):624-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2011.02.005. Epub 2011 Jun 8.
Van Den Bout-Van Den Beukel CJ, Fievez L, Michels M, Sweep FC, Hermus AR, Bosch ME, Burger DM, Bravenboer B, Koopmans PP, Van Der Ven AJ. Vitamin D deficiency among HIV type 1-infected individuals in the Netherlands: effects of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008 Nov;24(11):1375-82. doi: 10.1089/aid.2008.0058.
Mueller NJ, Fux CA, Ledergerber B, Elzi L, Schmid P, Dang T, Magenta L, Calmy A, Vergopoulos A, Bischoff-Ferrari HA; Swiss HIV Cohort Study. High prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency in combined antiretroviral therapy-naive and successfully treated Swiss HIV patients. AIDS. 2010 May 15;24(8):1127-34. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328337b161.
Allavena C, Delpierre C, Cuzin L, Rey D, Viget N, Bernard J, Guillot P, Duvivier C, Billaud E, Raffi F. High frequency of vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected patients: effects of HIV-related factors and antiretroviral drugs. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Sep;67(9):2222-30. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks176. Epub 2012 May 15.
Conesa-Botella A, Florence E, Lynen L, Colebunders R, Menten J, Moreno-Reyes R. Decrease of vitamin D concentration in patients with HIV infection on a non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing regimen. AIDS Res Ther. 2010 Nov 23;7:40. doi: 10.1186/1742-6405-7-40.
Arpadi SM, McMahon D, Abrams EJ, Bamji M, Purswani M, Engelson ES, Horlick M, Shane E. Effect of bimonthly supplementation with oral cholecalciferol on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2009 Jan;123(1):e121-6. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-0176. Erratum in: Pediatrics. 2009 May;123(5):1437.
Arpadi SM, McMahon DJ, Abrams EJ, Bamji M, Purswani M, Engelson ES, Horlick M, Shane E. Effect of supplementation with cholecalciferol and calcium on 2-y bone mass accrual in HIV-infected children and adolescents: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Mar;95(3):678-85. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.024786. Epub 2012 Jan 18.
Veldman CM, Cantorna MT, DeLuca HF. Expression of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) receptor in the immune system. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000 Feb 15;374(2):334-8.
Sloka S, Silva C, Wang J, Yong VW. Predominance of Th2 polarization by vitamin D through a STAT6-dependent mechanism. J Neuroinflammation. 2011 May 24;8:56. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-56.
Baeke F, Takiishi T, Korf H, Gysemans C, Mathieu C. Vitamin D: modulator of the immune system. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2010 Aug;10(4):482-96. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2010.04.001. Epub 2010 Apr 27. Review.
Klein SA, Dobmeyer JM, Dobmeyer TS, Pape M, Ottmann OG, Helm EB, Hoelzer D, Rossol R. Demonstration of the Th1 to Th2 cytokine shift during the course of HIV-1 infection using cytoplasmic cytokine detection on single cell level by flow cytometry. AIDS. 1997 Jul 15;11(9):1111-8.
Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM; Endocrine Society. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul;96(7):1911-30. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-0385. Epub 2011 Jun 6. Erratum in: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Dec;96(12):3908.
Haug CJ, Aukrust P, Haug E, Mørkrid L, Müller F, Frøland SS. Severe deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human immunodeficiency virus infection: association with immunological hyperactivity and only minor changes in calcium homeostasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Nov;83(11):3832-8.
Ryan P. Random allocation of treatments in blocks. Stata Journal;8:594, 2008
Rabe-Hesketh S and Skrondal A, Multilevel and Longitudinal Modeling Using Stata, Volume I: Continuous Responses. Stat Methods Med Res. 2016 Dec;25(6):3069.
Jacobson DL, Spiegelman D, Duggan C, Weinberg GA, Bechard L, Furuta L, Nicchitta J, Gorbach SL, Miller TL. Predictors of bone mineral density in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005 Sep;41(3):339-46.
Signorello LB, Shi J, Cai Q, Zheng W, Williams SM, Long J, Cohen SS, Li G, Hollis BW, Smith JR, Blot WJ. Common variation in vitamin D pathway genes predicts circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels among African Americans. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28623. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028623. Epub 2011 Dec 21.
Haug C, Müller F, Aukrust P, Frøland SS. Subnormal serum concentration of 1,25-vitamin D in human immunodeficiency virus infection: correlation with degree of immune deficiency and survival. J Infect Dis. 1994 Apr;169(4):889-93.
Teichmann J, Stephan E, Lange U, Discher T, Friese G, Lohmeyer J, Stracke H, Bretzel RG. Osteopenia in HIV-infected women prior to highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect. 2003 May;46(4):221-7.
Kakalia S, Sochett EB, Stephens D, Assor E, Read SE, Bitnun A. Vitamin D supplementation and CD4 count in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Pediatr. 2011 Dec;159(6):951-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.06.010. Epub 2011 Aug 4.
Boonstra A, Barrat FJ, Crain C, Heath VL, Savelkoul HF, O'Garra A. 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin d3 has a direct effect on naive CD4(+) T cells to enhance the development of Th2 cells. J Immunol. 2001 Nov 1;167(9):4974-80.
Fazekas de St Groth B, Landay AL. Regulatory T cells in HIV infection: pathogenic or protective participants in the immune response? AIDS. 2008 Mar 30;22(6):671-83. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f466da. Review.
Aandahl EM, Michaëlsson J, Moretto WJ, Hecht FM, Nixon DF. Human CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells control T-cell responses to human immunodeficiency virus and cytomegalovirus antigens. J Virol. 2004 Mar;78(5):2454-9.
Sousa AE, Carneiro J, Meier-Schellersheim M, Grossman Z, Victorino RM. CD4 T cell depletion is linked directly to immune activation in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 and HIV-2 but only indirectly to the viral load. J Immunol. 2002 Sep 15;169(6):3400-6.
Bang U, Kolte L, Hitz M, Dam Nielsen S, Schierbeck LL, Andersen O, Haugaard SB, Mathiesen L, Benfield T, Jensen JE. Correlation of increases in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D during vitamin D therapy with activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1-infected males. HIV Clin Trials. 2012 May-Jun;13(3):162-70. doi: 10.1310/hct1303-162.
D'Ambrosio D, Cippitelli M, Cocciolo MG, Mazzeo D, Di Lucia P, Lang R, Sinigaglia F, Panina-Bordignon P. Inhibition of IL-12 production by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Involvement of NF-kappaB downregulation in transcriptional repression of the p40 gene. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jan 1;101(1):252-62.
Shearer GM, Clerici M. Cytokine profiles in HIV type 1 disease and protection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jun;14 Suppl 2:S149-52. Review.
Clerici M, Seminari E, Maggiolo F, Pan A, Migliorino M, Trabattoni D, Castelli F, Suter F, Fusi ML, Minoli L, Carosi G, Maserati R; Master Group. Early and late effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a 2 year follow-up of antiviral-treated and antiviral-naive chronically HIV-infected patients. AIDS. 2002 Sep 6;16(13):1767-73.

Responsible Party: Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Chief of Department of Pediatrics at L. Sacco Hospital, University of Milan
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01656070     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: HLS02/2011-1.0-09-11-2010
2011-000593-54 ( EudraCT Number )
First Submitted: July 31, 2012
First Posted: August 2, 2012
Last Update Posted: August 3, 2012
Last Verified: August 2012

Keywords provided by Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, University of Milan:
HIV
children
adolescents
Vitamin D
immunity
T cell phenotype

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Hyperparathyroidism
Vitamin D Deficiency
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
HIV Infections
Avitaminosis
Rickets
Parathyroid Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Deficiency Diseases
Malnutrition
Nutrition Disorders
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Slow Virus Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Bone Diseases, Metabolic
Bone Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Calcium Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Vitamins
Vitamin D
Ergocalciferols
Cholecalciferol
Micronutrients


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