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Repeated Food Exposure Via the Olfactory and Gustatory Systems

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01651221
First Posted: July 26, 2012
Last Update Posted: January 27, 2016
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Hollie Raynor, University of Tennessee
  Purpose
Increasing exposure to a single orosensory cue without ingestion of additional energy may promote an increased rate of habituation, more rapid satiation, and reduced intake. This exposure can occur via smell (olfactory) and taste (gustatory) systems.It is not clear if repeated exposure via the combined olfactory and gustatory systems increases the rate of habituation more so than repeated exposure through one of these systems. Thus, the purpose of this investigation is to examine the amount of salivation occurring in 12 trials of exposure to a food via the olfactory, gustatory, and combined olfactory and gustatory systems. The primary dependent variable will be the amount of salivation in the 12 trials. It is hypothesized that a more rapid decrease in salivation will occur across trials in the combined olfactory and gustatory exposure as compared to the other two conditions, indicating a more rapid rate of habituation.

Condition Intervention
Habituation Other: Habituation

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Official Title: Repeated Food Exposure Via the Olfactory and Gustatory Systems

Further study details as provided by Hollie Raynor, University of Tennessee:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Amount of Salivation [ Time Frame: 12 trials (90 minutes) ]

Estimated Enrollment: 45
Study Start Date: July 2012
Study Completion Date: December 2015
Primary Completion Date: December 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Olfactory
Habituation of olfactory response
Other: Habituation
Habituation will be measured for each the conditions (olfactory, gustatory, olfactory and gustatory) of the study.
Experimental: gustatory
Habituation of gustatory response.
Other: Habituation
Habituation will be measured for each the conditions (olfactory, gustatory, olfactory and gustatory) of the study.
Experimental: olfactory and gustatory
Habituation of olfactory and gustatory response
Other: Habituation
Habituation will be measured for each the conditions (olfactory, gustatory, olfactory and gustatory) of the study.

Detailed Description:

Approximately two of every three adults in the U.S. are overweight or obese. The high prevalence of overweight/obesity negatively affects the health of the population, as obese individuals are at increased risk for developing several chronic diseases.

Successful control of body weight depends on effectively regulating eating. Satiation, the process by which an eating bout ends, assists with eating regulation, and factors that quicken the onset of satiation may aid with decreasing intake. One factor believed to influence satiation is the rate of decrease in consummatory response (habituation) to repeated presentations of food orosensory cues. Habituation is a basic form of learning, in which behavioral and physiological responses decrease in response to repeated presentations of a stimulus, with the decrease in response unrelated to sensory adaptation/fatigue or motor fatigue.

In one condition, participants will smell lemon and lime across 12 trials (olfactory exposure), in another condition participants will taste the juices across 12 trials (gustatory exposure), and in the last condition participants will smell and taste the juices across 12 trials (olfactory + gustatory exposure). The primary dependent variable will be the amount of salivation in the 12 trials. It is hypothesized that a more rapid decrease in salivation will occur across trials in the combined olfactory and gustatory exposure as compared to the other two conditions, indicating a more rapid rate of habituation

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 30 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Dietary restraint scores of less than or equal to 12 on the Three Factor -
  • Eating Questionnaire-Cognitive Restraint scale.
  • Have a body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 24.9.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Are taking medications or having an illness which might influence salivation, smell, and taste (i.e. upper respiratory illness, methylphenidate, atropine, Benadryl, Elavil, etc)
  • Are currently dieting
  • Are a binge eater
  • Do not at least moderately like lemon or lime flavor scoring < 50 on a 100 mm visual analogue scale
  • Are a regular smoker
  • Have any dietary restrictions that will inhibit participation including food allergies
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01651221


Locations
United States, Tennessee
Healthy Eating and Activity Lab, University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee, United States, 37996
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Tennessee
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Hollie A Raynor, PhD RD LDN University of Tennessee
  More Information

Responsible Party: Hollie Raynor, Professor, University of Tennessee
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01651221     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 8879B
First Submitted: July 24, 2012
First Posted: July 26, 2012
Last Update Posted: January 27, 2016
Last Verified: January 2016

Keywords provided by Hollie Raynor, University of Tennessee:
gustatory response
olfactory response