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Smoking Cessation Via Text Messaging: Feasibility Testing of Stop My Smoking USA (SMS USA)

This study has been completed.
Michigan State University
The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Center for Innovative Public Health Research Identifier:
First received: March 15, 2011
Last updated: April 28, 2016
Last verified: April 2016
The investigators developed a text messaging-based smoking cessation program called SMS (Stop My Smoking) USA. It was tailored for the unique needs and smoking habits of young adults. The investigators hypothesized that those in the SMS USA intervention would be significantly more likely to be quit at 6-months compared to the attention-matched control group.

Condition Intervention
Smoking Cessation
Behavioral: SMS USA

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Subject)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Smoking Cessation Via Text Messaging: Feasibility Testing of SMS USA

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Center for Innovative Public Health Research:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Continuous Abstinence at 3-months Assessed in Accordance With the NIH Behavior Change Consortium's Recommendations [ Time Frame: 3-months post-quit ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Continuous abstinence is defined as 5 or fewer cigarettes smoked since one's quit date. The question was asked based upon West et al., 2005: "Have you smoked at all, even just a puff, since [insert quit date]?" If yes, the respondent will be probed for how many cigarettes were smoked. Responses will be categorized into one of three options: A) No, not a puff; B) 1-5 cigarettes; C) More than 5 cigarettes.

    Self-reported cessation is confirmed by a significant other.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Point Prevalence [ Time Frame: 4-weeks post-quit ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    A cigarette, even just a puff, within the last 7 days (yes/no).

  • Continuous Abstinence at 4-weeks Post-quit [ Time Frame: 4 weeks post-quit ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Smoking five or fewer cigarettes since quit day at 4 weeks post-quit as verified by a significant other

Enrollment: 164
Study Start Date: June 2009
Study Completion Date: December 2011
Primary Completion Date: December 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: SMS USA
The 6-week smoking cessation intervention
Behavioral: SMS USA
Intervention participants receive text messages daily pre-and post-quit. Everyone receives messages 14 days prior to the Quit day, and through the day after Quit. Then, participants are 'pathed' to particular messages based upon their self-reported smoking status at Day 2 and Day 7 post quit, respectively. Those who are successful at quitting receive messages aimed at relapse prevention whereas those who have slipped receive messages aimed at getting the person to recommit to quitting and trying again.
Other Name: Stop My Smoking USA
No Intervention: Attention matched control
Messages aimed at improving one's sleep and increasing one's fitness, along with general messages about the most well known health dangers of smoking. Messages sent on the same schedule as the intervention group.

Detailed Description:
About one in four young adults are current smokers. Although over half report the desire to quit or cut down, quit rates in this age group have remained stagnant in the last ten years. Text messaging may represent a compelling intervention delivery method for smoking cessation for young adults because it is a medium they have widely adopted. Cell phone interventions also are unique because of their 'always on' capability - interventions are never far from the young adult's reach and they are received automatically instead of requiring the participant to initiate contact in order to receive the information. Dr. Ybarra, along with Drs. Holtrop and Graham, have developed SMS Turkey, an innovative behavioral intervention that uses text messaging to deliver CBT-based smoking cessation information to participants daily. Successful use of text messaging to deliver smoking cessation programs has been reported by Rodgers and colleagues in New Zealand and a replication study they are leading in the United Kingdom. These data provide optimism for the feasibility of text messaging-based smoking cessation programs in the United States. Using qualitative methods to inform design and content, and quantitative methods to assess the feasibility of the program, we propose to design and test SMS (Stop My Smoking) USA, a cell-phone based smoking cessation program for young adults ages 18-25. This innovative smoking cessation program uses technology widely adopted by young adults, an under-targeted population, to deliver a proactive, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based intervention. Our multidisciplinary team of researchers brings together expertise in Internet health and the design of tailored smoking cessation interventions.

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 25 Years   (Adult)
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • 28 cigarettes or more per week (at least 4/day) and on at least 6 days/week.
  • Owning a text-capable cell phone and cognizant of how to send and receive text messages
  • Currently enrolled or intending to enroll in an unlimited text messaging plan
  • Enrolled with a cell phone carrier that was compatible with the program software
  • Agree to verification of smoking cessation status by a significant other
  • Able to read and write in English
  • Informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01516632

United States, California
Internet Solutions for Kids, Inc.
Santa Ana, California, United States, 92705
Sponsors and Collaborators
Center for Innovative Public Health Research
Michigan State University
The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Principal Investigator: Michele Ybarra, MPH PhD Center for Innovative Public Health Research
  More Information

Study Data/Documents: Informed Consent Form  This link exits the site
All study materials (e.g., consent form, assessments) can be downloaded from the project website

Responsible Party: Center for Innovative Public Health Research Identifier: NCT01516632     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: R21CA135669  5R21CA135669 
Study First Received: March 15, 2011
Results First Received: March 29, 2016
Last Updated: April 28, 2016
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board
Individual Participant Data  
Plan to Share IPD: No

Keywords provided by Center for Innovative Public Health Research:
Cellular Phone
Mobile Phone
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Smoking cessation
young adults processed this record on October 27, 2016