Poliovirus Vaccine for Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) (PVS-RIPO)

This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified August 2015 by Duke University
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Brain Tumor Research Charity Grant
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Darell D. Bigner, MD, PhD, Duke University Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First received: December 1, 2011
Last updated: August 18, 2015
Last verified: August 2015

Purpose of the Study:

To determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of PVSRIPO when delivered intracerebrally by convection-enhanced delivery. To estimate progression-free and overall survival in supratentorial resectable, recurrent WHO grade IV malignant glioma patients. To evaluate immunologic, virologic and histopathologic parameters of the effect of virus infection on WHO Grade IV malignant gliomas.

Agent: PVSRIPO is the live attenuated, oral (SABIN) serotype 1 poliovirus (PV) vaccine containing a heterologous internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) from human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2). PVSRIPO recognizes Necl-5, an oncofetal cell adhesion molecule and tumor antigen widely expressed ectopically in malignancy, e.g. glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), as host cell receptor. PVSRIPO has been manufactured at NCI-Frederick, NCI, NIH.

Catheter Implantation: PVS-RIPO will be delivered directly into the tumor. A stereotactic biopsy will be performed prior to virus administration for frozen section confirmation of viable tumor and further analysis. The biopsy needle will be placed with stereotactic guidance by an MRI-compatible, stereotactic head frame. Immediately following the stereotactically-guided tumor biopsy, a catheter will be implanted in the OR at a site different from that used for the biopsy. A CT or MRI scan may be used to confirm catheter placement post-operatively.

Agent infusion: The entire volume of the agent to be delivered will be pre-loaded into a syringe by the investigational pharmacist and connected to the catheter under sterile conditions in the OR at the time of the biopsy procedure. Drug infusion will occur in the NICU so that all other emergency facilities will be available. Patients will be infused through a Medfusion 3500 infusion pump pre-programmed to a delivery rate of 0.5 l/hr. The total amount of the inoculum delivered to the patient will be 3 ml. The virus injection procedure will be completed within 6.5 hrs. The catheter will be removed immediately following the delivery of PVSRIPO.

Biopsy sampling and analyses: Biopsy material will be obtained from tumor tissue prior to virus administration. This tissue material will be subjected to routine histology to confirm tumor recurrence by the study neuropathologist, Dr. R. McLendon or his designate.

Condition Intervention Phase
Recurrent Supratentorial Glioblastoma Multiforme
Glioblastoma Multiforme
WHO Grade IV Gliomas
Biological: Live attenuated, oral (Sabin) serotype 1 poliovirus vaccine (PVSRIPO)
Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Endpoint Classification: Safety Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Dose-finding and Safety Study of PVSRIPO Against Recurrent Glioblastoma

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Duke University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Maximum Tolerated Dose [ Time Frame: 28 days post administration of PVS-RIPO ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The highest dose level for which the estimated probability that a patient experiences a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) is less than 20%. Any grade 3 or any Grade 4 toxicity that is not reversible within 2 weeks, or any life-threatening event, or treatment-related death will be considered a DLT. Any grade 2 or higher serious autoimmune toxicities particularly those affecting vital organs (e.g. cardiac, renal, CNS) will be considered a DLT.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Progression Free Survival [ Time Frame: Patients will be followed at a min of 2,4,8,16,24, 32,40 and 48 week intervals after infusion. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The Progression Free Survival is defined as the time between initiation of protocol treatment and the first occurrence of disease or death.

  • Overall Survival [ Time Frame: Infusion until 5 years post-infusion ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time between infusion and 5 years from infusion

  • Radiographic Response [ Time Frame: 6 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Best radiographic response observed within 6 months of infusion.

Estimated Enrollment: 32
Study Start Date: January 2012
Estimated Study Completion Date: January 2017
Estimated Primary Completion Date: January 2016 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: PVS - RIPO

PVSRIPO intratumoral dosing schedule and number of patients that will be treated.


1.0 x 10^8 TCID50

3.3 x 10^8 TCID50

1.0 x 10^9 TCID50

3.3 x 10^9 TCID50

1.0 x 10^10 TCID50

Biological: Live attenuated, oral (Sabin) serotype 1 poliovirus vaccine (PVSRIPO)

PVSRIPO intratumoral dosing schedule and number of patients that will be treated.


1.0 x 10^8 TCID50

3.3 x 10^8 TCID50

1.0 x 10^9 TCID50

3.3 x 10^9 TCID50

1.0 x 10^10 TCID50


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Disease Status. Patients must have a recurrent supratentorial WHO Grade IV malignant glioma based on imaging studies with measurable disease (≥ 1 cm or ≤ 5.5 cm of contrast-enhancing tumor). Prior histopathology consistent with a World Health Organization (WHO) Grade IV malignant glioma confirmed by the study pathologist, Roger McLendon, or his designate.
  2. Age. Due to the potential implications of the treatment on the developing CNS, all patients must be ≥ 18 years of age at the time of entry into the study.
  3. Prior Therapy. Patients may be included in the study independent of the regimen of previous surgical, radiation, or chemotherapy treatments administered. However, the exclusions listed in #5 of the Exclusions below must be followed.
  4. Performance Status. The patient must have a Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) of ≥ 70% at the time of entry.
  5. Laboratory Studies

    • Platelet count ≥ 125,000/ml
    • Prothrombin and Partial Thromboplastin Times ≤ 1.2 x normal
    • Positive serum anti-poliovirus titer
    • Creatinine ≤ 1.2 x normal
    • Total bilirubin, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase ≤ 2.5 x normal
    • Neutrophil count ≥ 1000
    • Hemoglobin ≥ 9
  6. Poliovirus Immunization Booster. The subject must have received a boost immunization with monovalent inactivated (Salk) poliovirus vaccine type 1 at least 2 weeks prior to administration of the study agent.
  7. Disease Confirmation. At the time of biopsy, prior to administration of virus, the presence of recurrent tumor must be confirmed by histopathological analysis of frozen sections.
  8. Informed Consent. A signed informed consent form approved by the Duke University Institutional Review Board (IRB) will be required for patient enrollment into the study. Patients must be able to read and understand the informed consent document and must sign the informed consent indicating that they are aware of the investigational nature of this study.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Pregnancy. Because of the unknown risk of virus administration potentially affecting a developing fetus or growing infant, females who are pregnant or breast-feeding during the study period will be excluded. Adults of reproductive potential not employing an effective method of birth control will be excluded. Sexually active women of child bearing potential, whose partner is male, must use medically approved birth control. Sexually active men, whose partner is a female of child bearing potential, must use a medically acceptable method of contraception.
  2. Disease Status. Because patients will receive drug intracerebrally, patients with an impending, life-threatening cerebral herniation syndrome, based on the assessment of the study neurosurgeons, Allan Friedman or John Sampson, or their designate, will be excluded.
  3. Medical Conditions. Because the potential toxicities from the agent being studied in this protocol may be similar to some known diseases or may be more dangerous in the context of certain known diseases, the following patients will be excluded to avoid confounding the study results:

    • Patients with an active infection requiring treatment or having an unexplained febrile illness (Tmax > 99.5 F).
    • Patients with known immunosuppressive disease or known human immunodeficiency virus infection.
    • Unstable or severe intercurrent medical conditions such as severe heart (New York Heart Association Class 3 or 4) or lung (FEV1 < 50%) disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
    • Albumin allergy. Albumin is added to the agent as a stabilizer. Patients with a known allergy will be excluded.
    • Gadolinium allergy. Gadolinium is used as contrast for the MRI.
  4. Previous Poliomyelitis. A history of neurological complications due to poliovirus infection would imply previous virus replication in the CNS. Based on animal studies, previous exposure to poliovirus administered intracerebrally can reduce subsequent virus replication in the CNS.
  5. Prior Therapy. Patients who have not recovered from the toxic effects of prior chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy will be excluded. Guidelines for this recovery period are dependent upon the specific therapeutic agent being used.

    • Patients may not have received chemotherapy ≤ 4 weeks [except for nitrosourea (6 weeks) or metronomic dosed chemotherapy such as daily etoposide or cyclophosphamide (1 week)] prior to starting the study drug unless patients have recovered from side effects of such therapy.
    • Patients may not have received immunotherapy ≤ 4 weeks prior to starting the study drug unless patients have recovered from side effects of such therapy.
    • Patients may not have received investigational drugs ≤ 4 weeks prior to starting the study drug unless patient has recovered from side effects of such therapy.

    Patients must have completed all standard of care treatments including resection and concurrent chemo-radiation prior to participating in this trial.

  6. Location and Extent of Tumor. Because of the potential toxicities from the agent, patients with neoplastic lesions in the brainstem, cerebellum or spinal cord, radiological evidence of multifocal disease, or leptomeningeal disease. Patients with evidence of diffuse subependymal disease or tumor in the brainstem, cerebellum, spinal cord, or CSF will be excluded.

    •Since the study agent is a local treatment, patients with radiological evidence of active (growing) multifocal disease, tumors extending into or crossing the corpus callosum or leptomeningeal disease, will be excluded.

  7. Subjects must not have diagnosis of agammaglobulinemia. Patients with the following will be excluded:

    • IgG levels < 400 mg/dL [4 g/L]
    • Undetectable anti-tetanus toxoid IgG
    • Known history of agammaglobulinemia
  8. Patient is on greater than 4mg per day of dexamethasone within the 2 weeks prior to PVSRIPO infusion.
  9. Patient has worsening steroid myopathy (history of gradual progression of bilateral proximal muscle weakness, and atrophy of proximal muscle groups).
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01491893

Contact: Stevie Threatt 919-684-5301 stevie.threatt@duke.edu
Contact: Susan Boulton, RN 919-684-5301 susan.boulton@duke.edu

United States, North Carolina
Duke University Medical Center Recruiting
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27710
Contact: Candice F Singletary    919-684-3107    candice.singletary@dm.duke.edu   
Sponsors and Collaborators
Darell D. Bigner, MD, PhD
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Brain Tumor Research Charity Grant
Principal Investigator: Allan Friedman, MD Duke University
  More Information

No publications provided

Responsible Party: Darell D. Bigner, MD, PhD, Director, Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke, Duke University Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01491893     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: Pro00031169, NS20023
Study First Received: December 1, 2011
Last Updated: August 18, 2015
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration
United States: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by Duke University:
Brain Tumor
Poliovirus Vaccine
WHO Grade IV Gliomas

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue
Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial
Neuroectodermal Tumors

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on October 13, 2015