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Screening for Tuberculosis in HIV-infected Patients Eligible for Antiretroviral Treatment

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: September 14, 2011
Last Update Posted: March 8, 2016
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Per Bjorkman, Lund University

Background: Increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa will require decentralization to primary health care. For this purpose, adapted methods for management of patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are needed. Improved detection of TB in patients starting ART, and assessment of co-administration of ART and TB treatment are priorities in this field.

Aims: To identify clinical predictors of TB in patients starting ART, and to construct screening algorithms for TB in this population; to assess ART outcomes in patients receiving TB treatment at health centre level.

Work plan: The project is performed in health centres providing ART in Ethiopia. A cohort of HIV positive patients initiating ART is prospectively followed. Baseline characteristics are registered; blood samples for CD4 cells, HIV RNA and immunological markers are collected, as well as sputum for TB culture and PCR. During ART, clinical data, CD4 cell counts and HIV RNA levels are followed. Patients with TB are compared to those without TB with regard to ART outcome. Baseline factors associated with TB will be used to construct TB screening algorithms.

Recruitment of the cohort was completed in March 2013; follow-up for determination of long term outcome of ART will be continued until 2016.

Significance: These studies give insight into TB-HIV co-infection at primary health care level in a Sub-Saharan region, and may impact future guidelines for management of such patients.

HIV Infection Tuberculosis

Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Tuberculosis in HIV-infected Patients Managed in Health Centres in Ethiopia - Identification of a Screening Algorithm for Active Tuberculosis and Determination of Outcome of Combined Antituberculosis and Antiretroviral Treatment

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Per Bjorkman, Lund University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Correlation between baseline clinical characteristics and presence of microbiologically confirmed active tuberculosis. [ Time Frame: Two years ]
    To develop an algorithm with the potential to identify indicators of prevalent and incident TB among patients initiating ART by correlating baseline clinical signs and symptoms with results of culture- and PCR-based investigations for TB. Such clinical characteristics will be compared both to TB present before starting ART, as well as to TB presenting during the first year after ART initiation. Results from this comparison will be used to construct an algorithm for TB screening in Ethiopian patients eligible for ART.

  • Comparison of ART outcome in patients taking concomitant anti-tuberculosis therapy and those only taking ART. [ Time Frame: Three years ]
    To prospectively compare clinical, immunological and virological outcomes of ART in patients with concomitant ATT to those in patients only receiving ART. Specific aims are to study rates of virological suppression during ART, the development of antiretroviral drug resistance, and treatment adherence.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Comparison of diagnostic methods for detection of TB among HIV-infected subjects eligible to start ART. [ Time Frame: Two years ]
    To compare the diagnostic yields of GeneXpert PCR, smear microscopy and novel tests for the detection of TB among HIV-infected subjects in Ethiopia eligible to start ART, using mycobacterial culture as reference.

Biospecimen Retention:   Samples Without DNA
Aliquoted plasma samples from consenting participants are stored at -80 C for analysis of biomarkers of tuberculosis and for prognostic markers. Stool and urine samples are stored at -20 C for analysis of alternative biomarkers of active tuberculosis.

Enrollment: 812
Study Start Date: October 2011
Study Completion Date: December 2015
Primary Completion Date: May 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Antiretroviral therapy, tuberculosis
Patients eligible for starting ART in health centres in Ethiopia

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Sampling Method:   Probability Sample
Study Population
HIV-infected patients managed in health centres

Inclusion Criteria:

  • HIV infection
  • Fulfills criteria for antiretroviral therapy (CD4 cell count below 350 cells/ml and/or WHO stage IV)
  • Residence in study uptake area
  • Written informed consent to participation and to tracing in case of defaulting

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Ongoing or previous antiretroviral therapy
  • Treatment for active tuberculosis for more than two weeks
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01433796

Adama Health Centre
Adama, Oromia, Ethiopia
Geda Health Centre
Adama, Oromia, Ethiopia
Dhera Health Center
Dhera, Oromia, Ethiopia
Mojo Health Centre
Mojo, Oromia, Ethiopia
Welenchiti Health Centre
Welenchiti, Oromia, Ethiopia
Sponsors and Collaborators
Lund University
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA)
Study Director: Per Björkman, M.D., Associate professor Lund University
Principal Investigator: Taye Tolera Balcha, M.D. Lund University
Study Chair: Erik Sturegård, M.D., Ph.D. Lund University
Study Chair: Patrik Medstrand, Professor Lund University
  More Information

Lawn SD, Harries AD, Anglaret X, Myer L, Wood R. Early mortality among adults accessing antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS. 2008 Oct 1;22(15):1897-908. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32830007cd. Review.
World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis control: epidemiology, strategy, financing. WHO Report, 2009. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2009
Wood R, Middelkoop K, Myer L, Grant AD, Whitelaw A, Lawn SD, Kaplan G, Huebner R, McIntyre J, Bekker LG. Undiagnosed tuberculosis in a community with high HIV prevalence: implications for tuberculosis control. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Jan 1;175(1):87-93. Epub 2006 Sep 14.
Shah S, Demissie M, Lambert L, Ahmed J, Leulseged S, Kebede T, Melaku Z, Mengistu Y, Lemma E, Wells CD, Wuhib T, Nelson LJ. Intensified tuberculosis case finding among HIV-Infected persons from a voluntary counseling and testing center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Apr 15;50(5):537-45. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318196761c.
Boehme CC, Nabeta P, Hillemann D, Nicol MP, Shenai S, Krapp F, Allen J, Tahirli R, Blakemore R, Rustomjee R, Milovic A, Jones M, O'Brien SM, Persing DH, Ruesch-Gerdes S, Gotuzzo E, Rodrigues C, Alland D, Perkins MD. Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 9;363(11):1005-15. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0907847. Epub 2010 Sep 1.
Dean GL, Edwards SG, Ives NJ, Matthews G, Fox EF, Navaratne L, Fisher M, Taylor GP, Miller R, Taylor CB, de Ruiter A, Pozniak AL. Treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2002 Jan 4;16(1):75-83.
Abdool Karim SS, Naidoo K, Grobler A, Padayatchi N, Baxter C, Gray A, Gengiah T, Nair G, Bamber S, Singh A, Khan M, Pienaar J, El-Sadr W, Friedland G, Abdool Karim Q. Timing of initiation of antiretroviral drugs during tuberculosis therapy. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 25;362(8):697-706. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0905848.
Lawn SD, Myer L, Bekker LG, Wood R. Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution disease: incidence, risk factors and impact in an antiretroviral treatment service in South Africa. AIDS. 2007 Jan 30;21(3):335-41.
Breen RA, Miller RF, Gorsuch T, Smith CJ, Ainsworth J, Ballinger J, Swaden L, Cropley I, Johnson MA, Lipman MC. Virological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy is unaffected by antituberculosis therapy. J Infect Dis. 2006 May 15;193(10):1437-40. Epub 2006 Apr 4.
Hung CC, Chen MY, Hsiao CF, Hsieh SM, Sheng WH, Chang SC. Improved outcomes of HIV-1-infected adults with tuberculosis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2003 Dec 5;17(18):2615-22.
Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector. September 2009 progress report. WHO 2009

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Per Bjorkman, Associate professor, Lund University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01433796     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: LU-2010/672
3120/215/03 ( Other Identifier: Institute of Science and Technology, Ethiopia )
First Submitted: September 11, 2011
First Posted: September 14, 2011
Last Update Posted: March 8, 2016
Last Verified: March 2016

Keywords provided by Per Bjorkman, Lund University:
antiretroviral therapy
health centres

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Mycobacterium Infections
Actinomycetales Infections
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections

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