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The ADAPT Study: Use of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) (ADAPT)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01327651
First received: December 1, 2010
Last updated: March 30, 2017
Last verified: January 2017
  Purpose
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a method of preventing HIV infection through the use of antiretroviral (ARV) medications before exposure to HIV. This study will examine the feasibility of different methods of dosing for a PrEP regimen. Three methods of delivery will be compared: daily, time-based, and event-based.

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections Drug: Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (FTC/TDF) Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: No masking
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: The ADAPT Study: A Phase II, Randomized, Open-Label, Pharmacokinetic and Behavioral Study of the Use of Intermittent Oral Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Proportion of Sexual Exposures Covered by Pre- and Post-exposure Dosing [ Time Frame: From week 6 (randomization week) to week 30 (end of self-administered dosing) ]
    Coverage will be determined based on the adjusted electronic and self-reported pill-use data. Specifically, a sex act will be considered as "covered" if at least one pill is taken 96 hours prior the sexual activity and at least one additional pill is taken within 24 hours after the sexual activity. If participant only took pill before the sexual activity (within 96 hours), but no pill taken after sexual activity (within 24 hours), then we considered it as pre-exposure covered. likewise, if participant only took pill after sexual activity (within 24 hours), but did not taken pill before sexual activity (within 96 hours), then we considered it as post-exposure covered. If participant did not taken pill before and after sexual activity, then it was considered as not covered. Note that the same pill can be both pre-exposure dose and a post-exposure dose if events are closely spaced. At no time should a participant in the intermittent arm be taking more pills than the daily arm.

  • The (Minimum) Total Number of Pills Needed for 100% Coverage Over the Follow-up Period (Based on Randomization Arm and Self-reported Sexual History in the Weekly Interviews) [ Time Frame: From week 6 (randomization week) to week 30 (end of self-administered dosing) ]
    Below I reported the number of sex acts as reported based on the adjusted electronic and self-reported sexual activity data, also the number of pills needed for 100% coverage. 100% coverage means all sex events (excluding oral sex) are "covered"; Note: sex act is considered as "covered" if at least one pill is taken 96 hours prior the sexual activity and at least one additional pill is taken within 24 hours after the sexual activity (same coverage definition for all three arms)

  • The Total Pills Actually Used Over the Follow-up Period [ Time Frame: From week 6 (randomization week) to week 30 (end of self-administered dosing) ]
    The total pills actually used over the follow-up period was calculated based on the adjusted electronic and self-reported pill-use data. It could be more or less than required by study design

  • Self-reported Side Effect or Symptom Scores [ Time Frame: From week 6 (randomization week) to week 30 (end of self-administered dosing) ]
    The self-reported symptom/side effect scores for common symptoms/side effects including headache, dizziness, cramping, abdominal pain, and flatulence. Collected during clinic visits. All the presented numbers are the percent of visits with each side effects


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Measurement of TFV-DP (Tenofovir Diphosphate) in PBMC (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell) [ Time Frame: week 10, 18 and 30, which is 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks after randomization ]
    Below we presented the percentages of total cohort with TFV-DP concentrations consistent with >=2 pills/week in women who also report sex in the last 7 day for each arm. For Cape Town and Bangkok, TFV-DP in PBMC was analyzed, for Harlem site, the TFV-DP in DBS (dried blood spot) was analyzed. Note: PBMC >5.2 fmol/10^6 cells is considered as participants taken >=2 tablets per week; DBS >=326 fmol/punch is considered as participants taken >=2 tablets per week

  • A Listing of Adverse Events (AEs) by Grade, Relationship to Study Product, and Arm [ Time Frame: From week 6 (randomization week) to week 30 (end of self-administered dosing) ]
    Only the listing of adverse events (AEs) by grade and arm are presented here. See outcome measure 10 for the listing of AE by relationship to study product

  • A Listing, by Arm, of Drug Resistance Test Results and Plasma HIV RNA Levels Among All Participants Who Seroconvert While on Study [ Time Frame: From enrollment to week 30 (end of self-administered dosing) ]
    Only the cross table between drug resistance by arm are presented here. See outcome measure 11 for the listing of plasma HIV RNA levels, and outcome measure 12 for the listing of drug resistance test by arm among all participants who seroconvert while on study.

  • The Percentage of Correctly Timed Adherence (Number of Pills Taken Within the Recommended Time Frame/Number of Pills Recommended) During 24 Weeks of Follow-up Based on Weekly Interviews and Adjusted EDM (Electronic Drug Monitoring) Data [ Time Frame: From week 6 (randomization week) to week 30 (end of self-administered dosing) ]
  • The Proportion of Participants Who Discontinue All PrEP Use Based on Self-report Via CASI or Weekly Interviews [ Time Frame: From Week 6 to Week 30 ]
  • A Listing of Adverse Events (AEs) by Grade, Relationship to Study Product, and Arm [ Time Frame: From week 6 (randomization week) to week 30 (end of self-administered dosing) ]
    Only the listing of AE related to study product are presented here. See outcome measure 6 for the listing of adverse events (AEs) by grade and arm.

  • A Listing, by Arm, of Drug Resistance Test Results and Plasma HIV RNA Levels Among All Participants Who Seroconvert While on Study [ Time Frame: From Enrollment to week 30 (end of self-administered dosing) ]
    Only the listing of plasma HIV RNA levels among all participants who seroconvert while on study are presented here. See outcome measure 12 for the listing of drug resistance test by arm.

  • A Listing, by Arm, of Drug Resistance Test Results and Plasma HIV RNA Levels Among All Participants Who Seroconvert While on Study [ Time Frame: From Enrollment to week 30 (end of self-administered dosing) ]
    Only the listing of drug resistance test by arm among all participants who seroconvert while on study are presented here. See outcome measure 11 for the listing of plasma HIV RNA levels


Enrollment: 622
Study Start Date: August 2011
Study Completion Date: December 2014
Primary Completion Date: December 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Daily dosing
Participants will receive oral FTC/TDF daily.
Drug: Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (FTC/TDF)
A fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Other Names:
  • Truvada
  • FTC/TDF
Active Comparator: Time-driven dosing
Participants will receive oral FTC/TDF twice weekly with a post-exposure dose.
Drug: Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (FTC/TDF)
A fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Other Names:
  • Truvada
  • FTC/TDF
Active Comparator: Event-driven dosing
Participants will receive oral FTC/TDF before and after a potential exposure to HIV infection.
Drug: Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (FTC/TDF)
A fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Other Names:
  • Truvada
  • FTC/TDF

Detailed Description:

No single strategy for the prevention of HIV has emerged as consistently used and successful, so multiple strategies have been developed. PrEP involves delivering ARV medications to people before they are exposed to HIV, in order to prevent infection. The optimal method of delivering PrEP has not yet been determined. This study will examine the feasibility of delivering PrEP in three methods. Daily dosing involves receiving ARV medications every day; time-driven dosing involves receiving ARV medications twice weekly plus a post-exposure dose; and event-driven dosing involves receiving ARV medications before and after a potential exposure to HIV. The ARV medication that will be used in this study is a combination pill that contains emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF). Recent research studies have shown that, if taken consistently, a daily oral dose of FTC/TDF can reduce the risk of HIV infection.

This study will enroll HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men and transgender women (MSM/TGW) and women who have sex with men (WSM). Participation will last 34 weeks. All participants will be given a combination pill that contains FTC/TDF. For the first 5 weeks, all participants will come to the study clinic weekly to receive a single dose of FTC/TDF.

At Week 6, participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups. In the daily dosing group, participants will take FTC/TDF once a day. In the time-dosing group, participants will take FTC/TDF twice per week and another dose after sexual intercourse (a post-exposure dose). In the event-dosing group, participants will take FTC/TDF before and after sexual intercourse. During this part of the study, participants will be given FTC/TDF to take on their own. Every week, from Week 6 to Week 29, study officials will call to ask questions about how many pills participants have taken and when they have had sexual intercourse. Participants will also complete computer-assisted self-interviews (CASIs).

Study visits will occur at enrollment, once a week for the first 5 weeks, and then once a month until Week 34. Assessment will include recording of medical history, completing an interview about sexual practices and background, and collection of blood, urine, and hair samples. Select study visits will include vaginal practices assessment (including use of lubricants and vaginal cleansing practices), family planning assessments (for women), and sex hormones assessments (for men).

Participants who acquire HIV infection during the study will discontinue study product. These participants will continue to be followed after enrollment at Weeks 4, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30, and every 12 weeks thereafter, as appropriate, until the last study participant completes follow-up at the study site. Participants whose first reactive HIV rapid test is at Week 34 who are later confirmed to be HIV infected will also be followed every 12 weeks after their Week 30 visit until the last study participant completes follow-up at the study site. Participants who acquire HIV infection during the study will undergo select protocol procedures and will receive counseling and referrals for HIV treatment.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Literacy in one of the study languages (Thai, Xhosa, and/or English)
  • Able to provide written informed consent
  • Able to provide weekly telephonic updates
  • Within 70 days of enrollment:

    1. Serum creatinine less than or equal to the upper limit of normal (ULN) and calculated creatinine clearance of at least 70 mL/min by the Cockcroft-Gault formula. More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol.
    2. Serum phosphate greater than or equal to the lower limit of normal (LLN)
    3. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) less than or equal to 2 times ULN
    4. Hemoglobin greater than 10 g/dL
    5. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative
    6. Willing and able to provide adequate locator information

Inclusion Criteria for MSM/TGW:

  • Male at birth
  • Reporting anal intercourse and/or receptive neovaginal intercourse with at least one man or transgender woman in the past 6 months
  • One or more of the following risk factors for HIV acquisition in the past 6 months according to self-report: sexual intercourse with more than one man or transgender woman; history of an acute sexually transmitted infection (STI); sex in exchange for money, goods, or favors; condomless intercourse (oral, anal, vaginal, or neovaginal) with a partner known to be HIV-infected or of unknown HIV infection status according to self report

Inclusion Criteria for Women Who Have Sex With Men (WSM):

  • Female at birth or self identify as female
  • Not pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Not able to or not intending to become pregnant during the next year
  • If able to become pregnant, self reported use of an effective method of contraception at Enrollment, and intending to use an effective method for the next 34 weeks
  • One or more of the following risk factors for HIV acquisition in the past 6 months according to self report: sexual intercourse with more than one man; history of an acute STI; sex in exchange for money, goods or favors; condomless intercourse (oral, anal, or vaginal) with a partner known to be HIV-infected or of unknown HIV infection status

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Proteinuria 2+ or greater at screening
  • Glucosuria 2+ or greater at screening
  • Serious and active medical or mental illness
  • One or both HIV rapid tests is reactive at screening or enrollment, regardless of subsequent HIV diagnostic test results
  • Signs or symptoms suggestive of acute HIV infection
  • Use of hypoglycemic agents for diabetes or agents with known nephrotoxic potential
  • Use of ARV therapy (e.g., for post-exposure prophylaxis [PEP] or PrEP) in the 90 days prior to study entry
  • Serum phosphate level below site laboratory LLN
  • Current participation (or participation within 3 months of screening) in any HIV prevention study
  • Previous or current participation in the active arm of an HIV vaccine trial
  • Acute or chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection (refers to chronic active HBV infection evidenced by a positive test for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)
  • Presence of a psychological or social condition or an addictive disorder that would preclude compliance with the protocol
  • Any other reason or condition that in the opinion of the investigator would interfere with participation, complicate interpretation of study outcome data, or otherwise interfere with achieving the study objectives
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01327651

Locations
United States, New York
Harlem Prevention Center CRS
New York, New York, United States, 10027
South Africa
Emavundleni CRS
Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa, 7750
Thailand
Silom Community Clinic CRS
Nonthaburi, Thailand, 11000
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Investigators
Study Chair: Robert M. Grant, MD, MPH University of California, San Francisco
Study Chair: Frits van Griensven, PhD, MPH School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01327651     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: HPTN 067 (ADAPT)
10852 ( Registry Identifier: DAIDS-ES )
Study First Received: December 1, 2010
Results First Received: January 5, 2017
Last Updated: March 30, 2017

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Drug Administration Schedule
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Pharmacokinetics

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Tenofovir
Emtricitabine
Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Combination
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Anti-HIV Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 16, 2017