A Study of Chewing Gum, Snacking and Appetite (GUM)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01316991
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : March 16, 2011
Last Update Posted : March 16, 2018
Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Institute for Food Safety and Health, United States

Brief Summary:

Investigators are interested in learning how appetite responds after chewing gum.

In this research study subjects will be asked to eat a lunch meal provided at our Center. After eating the lunch meal, subjects will answer questions describing their feelings of hunger, thirst and desire to eat every 30 minutes for 3 hours.

Blood will be drawn throughout the study period to determine how chewing gum impacts certain hormones released from your intestine after eating and therefore how they influence your appetite. Blood draws will be done every 30 minutes for 3 hours. At only one of the two study visits, subjects will chew gum during specific times. One study visit will not include chewing gum.

After three hours, there will be a snack to eat as much as desired followed by one more set of questions and blood draw.

All study visits will take approximately 4 ½ hours.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Hunger Dietary Supplement: Chewing Gum Dietary Supplement: No Gum Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

The study is a randomized, 2-arm, placebo-controlled, within-subjects crossover study to evaluate the satiety and metabolic response patterns of gum/no gum in relatively healthy weight and obese women.

The study will require one initial screening visit (1 hour) and 2 study visits. We are looking for healthy, non-smoking women older than 18 years of age with no significant medical history.

The initial screening visit will determine subject eligibility through height, weight and waist circumference measurements, vital signs, blood glucose test (finger prick) and completion of a series of surveys related to eating, health, exercise and mood.

If willing and eligible to participate, subjects will have 2 study visits. The lunch will be provided 4 hours after a intra-subject standardized breakfast (the same breakfast for each subject before each study visit). Upon arrival at each visit, subjects will have anthropometric measurements, vital signs upon blood glucose finger prick as well as assessment for compliance with breakfast protocol, subsequent fasting and adequate water intake.

Upon completion of pre-study procedures, a registered nurse will place a catheter (flexible tubing) in the subjects' arm during each study visit. A catheter is used so subjects are not stuck with a needle for every blood sample. Instead, the catheter is inserted using a needle, the needle is removed and the flexible plastic tubing remains the arm for the duration of the study day serving as a port for collecting blood samples at the specific time points

The initial blood draw will be collected (pre-lunch) then the lunch meal served. Subjects will have 20 minutes to finish the entire lunch meal. Thereafter, subjects will describe feelings of hunger, thirst and desire to eat every 30 minutes for 3 hours followed by blood draws.

At one of the 2 study visits, subjects will be provided chewing gum at which they will chew gum for 15 minutes leading up to the question set and blood draw.

A tray of snacks will be provided at 3 hours post-lunch and subjects may consume the snacks as desired. Lastly, a final set of questions will be answered followed by a blood draw at 4 hours post-lunch.

During the course of the study, subjects will be instructed to maintain their usual level of activity and a self-selected diet. Three day food records will be maintained throughout the course of the study.

Each study visit will last approximately 4 1/2 hours and subjects will be required to remain at the Clinical Nutrition Research Center on the IIT Campus for the duration of the visit.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 56 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Understanding the Role of Chewing Gum in Satiation, Satiety and Hunger Management
Actual Study Start Date : December 1, 2010
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2019

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Chewing gum
Subject will chew gum at defined intervals
Dietary Supplement: Chewing Gum
chewing gum will be provided
Other Name: subject will chew gum
Placebo Comparator: No Gum
No chewing gum will be provided to subject
Dietary Supplement: No Gum
no chewing gum will be provided
Other Name: subject will not chew gum

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. To characterize the subjective and metabolic satiety response pattern to chewing gum vs. no chewing gum on subjective satiety and subsequent second meal intake in adult women. [ Time Frame: 4 hour post prandial study ]

    Chewing gum will be provided throughout the 4 hour post-prandial study at defined intervals at one of the two study visits. Feelings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat will be measured by the subject every 30 minutes post-lunch for 3 hours. Blood draws will also be collected every 30 minutes post-lunch for 3 hours.

    At 3 hours, a snack tray will be provided and subject will be instructed to consume as desired. One additional sent of questions and blood draw will be completed at 4 hours post-lunch.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. To investigate the relationship of metabolic responses to gum-induced/enhanced satiety by evaluating changes in free-living food intake in adult women [ Time Frame: 2 days ]

    Blood draws will also be collected every 30 minutes post-lunch for 3 hours. One additional blood draw will be completed at 4 hours post-lunch.

    Subjects will be asked to maintain a self-selected diet throughout the study period. Leading up to the study visits, subjects will measure and record all food intake using food intake scales provided. Subjects will also be asked to measure and record all food intake for the remainder of the study visit day.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Females
  • 18 years of age and older
  • Healthy weight: BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2, inclusive
  • Obese: BMI between 30 - 38 kg/m2, inclusive
  • No clinical evidence of cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal or hepatic disease
  • Unrestrained eater (score < 10 on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Pregnant and/or lactating or planning for pregnancy
  • Allergies or intolerances to foods consumed in the study
  • Fasting blood glucose > 110 mg/dL. Subjects identified with elevated fasting blood glucose levels will be will be advised to contact their primary care physician for appropriate follow-up care.
  • Taking over the counter supplements that may interfere with the study procedures or endpoints
  • Taking prescription medications that may interfere with study procedures or endpoints (medications that affect appetite, unstable dose of hormones <6 months)
  • Subjects with unusual dietary habits (e.g. pica)
  • Actively losing weight or trying to lose weight (unstable body weight fluctuations of > 5 kg in a 60 day period)
  • Excessive exercisers or trained athletes
  • Addicted to drugs and/or alcohol
  • Medically documented psychiatric or neurological disturbances
  • Smoker (past smoker may be allowed if cessation is > 2 years)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01316991

United States, Illinois
Clinical Nutrition Research Center
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60616
Sponsors and Collaborators
Institute for Food Safety and Health, United States
Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company
Study Director: Britt Burton-Freeman, MS, PhD National Center Food Safety and Technology

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Institute for Food Safety and Health, United States Identifier: NCT01316991     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: GUM 2010-066
First Posted: March 16, 2011    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 16, 2018
Last Verified: March 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

Keywords provided by Institute for Food Safety and Health, United States:
chewing gum
gut peptide hormones
psychological phenomena and processes