A Randomized Trial of Diabetes Prevention Through Lifestyle Change in India (D-CLIP)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Behavioral: Lifestyle Intervention
Behavioral: Standard of Care
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||The Diabetes Community Lifestyle Improvement Program (D-CLIP): A Translation Randomized Trial of a Culturally Specific Lifestyle Intervention for Diabetes Prevention in India|
- Diabetes Incidence [ Time Frame: Baseline through end of follow-up (mean follow-up time = 3 years) ]At baseline and follow-up visit(s), a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test will be administered to measure both 2-hour post-load glucose (2HG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). After the intervention and maintenance periods, blood glucose will be measured by a FPG test. Diabetes is diagnosed by a FPG≥126 mg/dL or a 2HG≥200 mg/dL. Diabetes incidence will be calculated by determining the proportion of individuals progressing from pre-diabetes to diabetes at each time point.
- Body Weight [ Time Frame: Baseline through end of follow-up (mean follow-up time = 3 years) ]Weight will be measured in kilograms using a standardized, calibrated scale. Weight loss in kilograms and percent weight loss will be calculated.
- Cost-effectiveness [ Time Frame: Baseline through end of follow-up (mean follow-up time = 3 years) ]The cost-effectiveness of the intensive lifestyle program, from the perspectives of a single payer system and society, will be compared with standard lifestyle advice by conducting incremental cost-effective analyses in which the net costs and net effectiveness of the intensive lifestyle program and the standard lifestyle advice is calculated and expressed as a ratio.
- Waist circumference [ Time Frame: Baseline through end of follow-up (mean follow-up time = 3 years) ]Waist circumference in centimeters will be measured using a non-elastic tape measure. Change in waist circumference will be calculated.
- Percent Body Fat [ Time Frame: Baseline through end of follow-up (mean follow-up time = 3 years) ]Percent body fat will be measured using bioelectrical impedance (Beurer machine).
- Blood Pressure [ Time Frame: Baseline through end of follow-up (mean follow-up time = 3 years) ]Blood Pressure will be measured using standard procedures with an electronic BP apparatus.
- Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) [ Time Frame: Baseline through end of follow-up (mean follow-up time = 3 years) ]HbA1c will be measured from a fasting venous blood sample.
- Plasma Lipids [ Time Frame: Baseline through end of follow-up (mean follow-up time = 3 years) ]Plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, and total cholesterol will be measured from fasting venous blood samples.
- Beta Cell Function [ Time Frame: Baseline through end of follow-up (mean follow-up time = 3 years) ]Changes in beta cell function [as measured by the Oral Disposition Index, calculated as (ΔI0-30 /ΔG0-30) x (1/fasting insulin)] and insulin resistance (using the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance, HOMA-IR) will be calculated.
- Dietary Intake [ Time Frame: aseline through end of follow-up (mean follow-up time = 3 years) ]Changes in average diet are assessed by comparing the results of a 12-month food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) from baseline to the end of the intervention period and during follow-up.
- Program Acceptability [ Time Frame: Baseline through end of follow-up ]The acceptability of the intervention will be assessed through focus group discussions with participants who received the lifestyle intervention and phone interviews with program drop-outs.
|Study Start Date:||May 2009|
|Study Completion Date:||November 2013|
|Primary Completion Date:||November 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: Standard of Care
Participants randomized to the standard of care group will receive standard lifestyle advice for diabetes prevention consistent with expert recommendations for a healthy lifestyle, including losing 5-10% of their excess body weight, following standard dietary recommendations to reduce calorie and fat intake, and exercising at least 150 minutes per week.
Behavioral: Standard of Care
Participants randomized to the standard of care group will meet with a physician and a dietician, attend one class/awareness lecture on diabetes prevention through weight loss and diet change and one class on exercise, and receive handouts reinforcing what they learn in class and with the dietician, fitness consultant, and physician.
Experimental: Lifestyle Intervention
Intervention arm participants will participate in a step-wise model of diabetes prevention with the goal of reducing diabetes risk, primarily through (1) a weight loss of at least 7% and (2) 150 minutes or more per week of moderate level physical activity.
Behavioral: Lifestyle Intervention
Intervention arm participants will attend 6 months of weekly classes where they will be taught the skills necessary to reach these goals. The curriculum for the classes is based on the DPP lesson plans. Social support will be provided by trained lay health educators and peer support groups. Participants who remain at highest risk of T2DM after four or more months in the program will be prescribed metformin in addition to continuing the lifestyle program. Metformin dosages will start at 500 mg per day, and, when appropriate, will increase to 1000 mg per day (given as 500 mg twice per day). This group will be comprised of individuals who have (1) Fasting plasma glucose values of 100 mg/dl or more and (2) elevated fasting HbA1c measures of 5.7% or more.
Aims: The Diabetes Community Lifestyle Improvement Program (D-CLIP) aims to implement and evaluate in a controlled, randomized trial the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of a culturally appropriate, low-cost, and sustainable lifestyle intervention for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in India.
Methods: D-CLIP, a translational research project adapted from the methods and curriculum developed and tested for efficacy in the Diabetes Prevention Program, utilizes innovated methods (a step-wise model of diabetes prevention with lifestyle and metformin added when needed; inclusion of individuals with isolated impaired glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, and both; classes team-taught by professionals and trained community educators) with the goals of increasing diabetes prevention, community acceptability, and long-term dissemination and sustainability of the program. The primary outcome is, diabetes incidence, and secondary outcomes are cost-effectiveness, changes in anthropometric measures, plasma lipids, blood pressure, blood glucose, and HbA1c, and program acceptability and sustainability assessed using a mixed methods approach.
Conclusion: D-CLIP, a low-cost, community-based, research program, addresses the key components of translational research and can be used as a model for prevention of chronic diseases in other low- and middle-income country settings.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01283308
|Madras Diabetes Research Foundation|
|Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, 600 086|
|Principal Investigator:||Viswanathan Mohan, MD, PhD||Madras Diabetes Research Foundation/Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre|
|Principal Investigator:||K.M. Venkat Narayan, MD||Emory University|