Imaging in MGUS, SMM and MM
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01237054|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 9, 2010
Results First Posted : January 16, 2015
Last Update Posted : August 14, 2017
- Recent studies have shown that the premalignant conditions monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) have a high risk of progressing to multiple myeloma (MM). There are currently no known effective treatments to prevent MGUS or SMM from developing into MM, and there are no known tests for determining whether an individual with MGUS or SMM will develop MM. Researchers are investigating new and improved imaging techniques that may be able to better detect the progression of MGUS or SMM into MM.
- To compare the results of three imaging techniques in individuals with MGUS, SMM, and MM.
- To correlate the information from the imaging studies with established clinical markers of progression from MGUS/SMM to MM.
- Individuals at least 18 years of age who have been diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering multiple myeloma, or multiple myeloma.
- Participants will be screened with a physical examination and medical history, and will provide baseline blood, urine, and bone marrow samples before beginning the imaging studies.
- Participants will have three imaging studies on separate days: a standard 18-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan (18-FDG PET/CT), a PET/CT scan with an experimental sodium fluoride-based drug (18-NaF PET/CT), and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).
- Participants will be closely monitored during each scan, and will provide additional blood samples before and after the scans.
- Participants may provide additional blood, urine, tissue, and bone marrow samples for optional research studies.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Multiple Myeloma Smoldering Multiple Myeloma Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance||Drug: 18-NaF PET Other: DCE-MRI Drug: 18-FDG PET/CT||Phase 2|
- Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm with a median survival of 3-4 years.
- Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM) are premalignant plasma cell proliferative disorders characterized by elevated monoclonal protein and bone marrow plasma cells. MGUS affects 3.2% of Caucasians over the age of 50 and has a 1% annual risk of progression to MM.
Approximately 3000 cases of SMM are diagnosed annually with a 10% annual risk of progression to MM.
- Currently, it is not possible to predict which patients will progress to MM.
- Novel imaging modalities (FDG-PET, 18-NaF PET and DCE-MRI) may improve our ability to predict patients who are at high risk of progression.
- To compare the results of imaging modalities (18-NaF PET/CT, 18-FDG PET/CT, and DCE-MRI) in patients with MGUS, SMM, and MM.
- To correlate the imaging studies with established clinical markers of progression from MGUS/SMM to MM, including serum M-protein, percentage of plasma cells in the bone marrow, serum free light-chain abnormalities and immunoparesis, and ratio of normal/abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow by flow cytometry.
- A confirmed diagnosis of MGUS, SMM or MM (based on IMWG (International Myeloma Working Group) diagnostic criteria)
- Age greater than or equal to 18 years
- ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) performance status in the range of 0-2
- This is a cross-sectional pilot study of patients with MGUS, SMM or MM.
- Following initial evaluation and confirmation of diagnosis, baseline studies including skeletal survey will be done.
- Subsequently 18-NaF PET/CT, 18-FDG PET/CT and DCE-MRI imaging will be done in all the patients.
- 10 MGUS, 11 SMM and 10 MM patients will be enrolled on this protocol.
- Patients may donate cellular products or tissues as appropriate for research purposes.
- Almost all MGUS and SMM patients will be followed clinically as part of 10-C-0096:
Natural History Study of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Smoldering Myeloma (SMM).
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||31 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Single Group Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||A Pilot Study of Novel Imaging Modalities in Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS), Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM), and Multiple Myeloma (MM)|
|Actual Study Start Date :||October 17, 2010|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||August 9, 2011|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||August 9, 2011|
Experimental: Imaging in MGUS, SMM, and MM
Participants will have three imaging studies on separate days: a standard positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan (18-FDG PET/CT), a PET/CT scan with an experimental sodium fluoride-based drug (18-NaF PET/CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).
Drug: 18-NaF PET
The patient will receive 5mCi of F-18 NaF IV (intravenous) bolus, followed by a ~20 ml saline (sodium chloride IV infusion 0.9% w/v) flush over a period of ~20 seconds. Serial dynamic imaging (2 minutes/bed position) will be obtained over a 1-hour period. The patient will be permitted an imaging break until a static PET/CT is performed beginning at 2-hours post F-18 NaF injection.
An FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved gadolinium chelate (e.g. Magnevist, Berlex Laboratories, NJ, USA) will be administered intravenously at 3 cc/sec using an automated pump injector (Medrad, Pittsburgh, PA, USA).
Drug: 18-FDG PET/CT
The 18F-FDG injection procedure will be injected and be followed by a ~20 ml saline (sodium chloride IV infusion 0.9% w/v) flush over a period of ~20 seconds. The injection site will be evaluated pre- and post administration for any reaction (e.g. bleeding, hematoma, redness, or infection). Whole body (vertex to toes) static PET/CT imaging will be performed beginning at 1-hour, and again at 2-hours post injection.
- Count of Participants With Positive and Negative 18F-FDG PET CT and F18-NaF PET CT Imaging Results in Individuals With MGUS, SMM, and MM. [ Time Frame: 60 days ]18F-FDG PET CT and F18-NaF PET CT imaging results were compared in participants with MGUS, SMM, and MM. Lesions were considered positive if focal uptake corresponded to lesions identified on CT for NaF and negative if no uptake seen in lesions. Criteria to define FDG positivity included parameters published by Zamagni et al with focal abnormal uptake more intense than background.
- Count of Participants With Positive DCE-MRI Imaging Results [ Time Frame: 60 days ]DCE-MRI, an FDA approved gadolinium chelate (e.g. Magnevist, Berlex Laboratories, NJ, USA) will be administered intravenously at 3 cc/sec using an automated pump injector (Medrad, Pittsburgh, PA, USA). The criteria was presence of early and diffuse hyper-enhancement compared to the surrounding bone marrow. The pattern of marrow involvement on MRI was characterized as: (1) normal when there was no evidence of abnormal signal intensity; (2) focal, which consisted of localized areas of abnormal marrow; the lesions are darker than yellow marrow and slightly darker than or isointense to red marrow on T1-weights images; (3) diffuse, in which normal bone marrow signal intensity is completely absent, the intervertebral disks appear brighter than or isointense to the diseased marrow; and finally (4) heterogeneous that consists of innumerable small foci of disease on a background of intact marrow, with small dark lesions on T1-weighted images, which become bright on T2-weighted image.
- Comparison of Serum Angiogenic Markers Ang2 (Angiopoietin), G-CSF (Granulocyte-colony Stimulating Factor), Follistatin, HGF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor), FGF-1, Endothelin 1, and VEGF-A (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A) Between MGUS and SMM/MM Groups [ Time Frame: 60 days ]The assay was performed according to the manufacture's protocol, and all samples were diluted 1:3. Cytokine values were calculated using a five-parameter standard curve with Bio-Plex Manager 6.1.
- Comparison of Microvessel Density (MVD) Among Patients With MGUS, SMM, and MM [ Time Frame: 60 days ]Microvessel density was estimated by determining the average number of cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34)-stained microvessels in 10 areas of maximal MVD counted at a high-power field (h.p.f. x 500 magnification). Large vessels and vessels in the periosteum on bone were excluded. Areas of staining with no discrete breaks were counted as a single vessel. The presence of a lumen was not required.
- Comparison of Reverse Contrast Transfer Rate (Kep) and Forward Contrast Transfer Rate (Ktrans) Among Patients With MGUS, SMM, and MM [ Time Frame: 60 days ]Pharmacokinetic parameters Kep and Ktrans were measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).
- Comparison of Serum Angiogenic Marker Reverse Contrast Transfer Rate (Kep) Between MGUS and SMM/MM Groups [ Time Frame: 60 days ]Pharmacokinetic parameter Kep was measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).
- Comparison of Microvessel Density (MVD) Between MGUS and SMM/MM Groups [ Time Frame: 60 days ]Microvessel density was estimated by determining the average number of CD34-stained microvessels in 10 areas of maximal MVD counted at a high-power field (h.p.f. x 500 magnification).
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01237054
|United States, Maryland|
|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|
|Principal Investigator:||Peter L Choyke, M.D.||National Cancer Institute (NCI)|