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A Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Self-Management Approach for Insomnia in Chronic Pain: A Randomized Control Trial

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01188460
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : August 25, 2010
Results First Posted : February 19, 2018
Last Update Posted : February 19, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
The Ottawa Hospital
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute

Brief Summary:
This study will test the impact of a cognitive-behavioural self-management approach for the management of insomnia among patients with chronic pain. This self-management approach consists of a manual describing cognitive behavioural techniques for the management of insomnia. In terms of primary outcomes, it is anticipated that there would be improvements in sleep-related dimensions such as sleep quality, sleep efficiency, and night-time awakenings in the sample group receiving a copy of the self-help manual intervention to be implemented by participants in their home (intervention group), relative to the group receiving treatment as usual (control group). In terms of secondary outcomes, it is anticipated that the intervention group will show improvements in mood, fatigue, pain severity, and pain-related disability relative to the control group. The tertiary outcome variable of pre-sleep arousal is anticipated to have a moderating or mediating relationship with the sleep variables investigated.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Insomnia Chronic Pain Behavioral: Self-help manual for insomnia Behavioral: Sleep diary Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

In summary therefore, insomnia and other sleep difficulties have been reported to frequently occur in conjunction with other medical or psychiatric disorders, however insomnia co-occurring with other medical or psychiatric conditions has received less attention relative to primary insomnia with no such concurrent conditions (e.g., Lichstein, 2006; McCrae, & Lichstein, 2001; Taylor, Mallory, Lichstein, Durrence, Riedel, & Bush, 2007). In chronic pain, there have not been many well-controlled studies involving insomnia existing with a concurrent chronically painful condition. Research thus far has found multi-component cognitive-behavioural approaches to be successful in treating primary insomnia, and there have been some studies applying these approaches in the context of insomnia and concurrent medical conditions (Currie, Wilson, Pontefract, & deLaplante, 2000; Morin, 1993). Based on Morin's work (Morin, 1993; Morin, Beaulieu-Bonneau, LeBlanc, & Savard, 2005) involving a cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) protocol for patients with sleep problems related to chronic pain, a self-help format of such an intervention has also been developed (Currie & Wilson, 1997). However, this has thus far only been delivered within a group-based treatment programme (Currie, 1998; Currie & Wilson, 1997; Currie, Wilson, Pontefract, & deLaplante, 2000). From this context, and building on a prior study involving a group treatment format (Currie, 1998; Currie, Wilson, Pontefract, & deLaplante, 2000), the usefulness of a manualized self-management approach in manageing insomnia will be investigated, including the impact of this approach with regard to other salient measures of improved functioning (such as pain severity or pain-related disability) for individuals with chronic pain. The proposed study will involve a randomized control trial of this self-help treatment strategy for comorbid insomnia in chronically painful medical conditions among an adult outpatient sample at a hospital rehabilitation centre and pain clinic. This study thus seeks to investigate how successful a cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) self-help management approach is for manageing insomnia amongst people with chronic pain. Given the public health implications of the relationship of poor sleep to quality of life (e.g., Morin, Stone, McDonald, & Jones, 1994; Quesnel, Savard, Simard, Ivers, & Morin, 2003), a self-management approach to insomnia in the context of chronic pain may offer an accessible and cost-effective treatment option.

The following hypotheses will be tested:

The first hypothesis predicts that participants in the intervention group will show changes in their scores on psychological measures in terms of greater improvements in sleep-related dimensions, in comparison with controls between the baseline and post-treatment periods.

The second hypothesis predicts that participants in the intervention group will show changes in their scores on psychological measures in terms of lower levels of anxiety, depression, fatigue, pain severity, and pain-related disability, in comparison with controls between the baseline and post-treatment periods. These secondary outcome variables are not directly targeted by the intervention, however it is proposed that if improvements in sleep are experienced, there would be subsequent improvements in the variables of mood, fatigue, pain severity, and pain-related disability among chronic pain patients who experience insomnia.

The third hypothesis predicts that the variable of pre-sleep arousal will have a moderating or mediating influence on the sleep-related variables (which will be the primary outcome variables). The moderating or mediating variable of pre-sleep arousal is proposed to assess dimensions related to sleep that are not tapped into by the primary outcome, sleep-related variables, but that may be of salience in the context of insomnia that is comorbid with chronically painful conditions.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 48 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Self-Management Approach for Insomnia in Chronic Pain: A Randomized Control Trial
Study Start Date : April 2010
Actual Primary Completion Date : January 2012
Actual Study Completion Date : March 2012

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Chronic Pain

Arm Intervention/treatment
Placebo Comparator: Control Group
Receive one weekly telephone follow-up call per week to monitor sleep progress, complete 7 weeks of sleep diaries only (sleep diary measures Total Sleep Time in hours, Time to Fall Asleep in minutes, Number of Nocturnal Awakenings, Sleep Efficiency as a percentage, and Sleep Quality as units on a scale), complete questionnaires at three study timepoints
Behavioral: Sleep diary
Experimental: Experimental Group
Receive one weekly telephone call to monitor sleep progress, complete 7 weeks of sleep diaries (sleep diary measures Total Sleep Time in hours, Time to Fall Asleep in minutes, Number of Nocturnal Awakenings, Sleep Efficiency as a percentage, and Sleep Quality as units on a scale), implement one chapter per week of self-help manual for insomnia over 7 weeks at home, complete questionnaires at three study timepoints
Behavioral: Self-help manual for insomnia
Implementation of chapters of self-help manual at home, and completion of sleep diary in terms of time in bed, hours of sleep, time to fall asleep, number of awakenings, and sleep quality
Other Name: Intervention Group

Behavioral: Sleep diary



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) [ Time Frame: Timepoint 2 (week 7 of study participation) ]
    Measures insomnia symptoms, scores range from 0-28 with higher scores (ranging from 15-28) indicating clinical insomnia and therefore worse outcomes

  2. Sleep Diary- Total Sleep Time [ Time Frame: Timepoint 2 (week 7 of study participation). ]

    Measures:

    Total Sleep Time in hours, higher scores indicate better outcomes


  3. Sleep Diary- Time to Fall Asleep [ Time Frame: Timepoint 2 (week 7 of study participation). ]

    Measures:

    Time to Fall Asleep in minutes, higher scores indicate worse outcomes


  4. Sleep Diary- Number of Nocturnal Awakenings [ Time Frame: Timepoint 2 (week 7 of study participation). ]

    Measures:

    Number of Nocturnal Awakenings, higher scores indicate worse outcomes


  5. Sleep Diary- Sleep Efficiency [ Time Frame: Timepoint 2 (week 7 of study participation). ]

    Measures:

    Sleep Efficiency (percentage)- higher scores indicate better outcomes


  6. Sleep Diary- Sleep Quality [ Time Frame: Timepoint 2 (week 7 of study participation). ]

    Measures:

    Sleep Quality (units on a scale from 0-10), higher scores indicate better outcomes



Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Pain Severity Rating [ Time Frame: Timepoint 2 (week 7 of study participation). ]
    Measures pain severity, rated on scale from 0-10, total scores range from 0-40, higher scores indicate worse outcomes

  2. Pain Disability Index (PDI) [ Time Frame: Timepoint 2 (week 7 of study participation). ]
    Measures pain disability impact on various life domains, scores range from 0-70, higher scores indicate worse outcomes

  3. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) [ Time Frame: Timepoint 2 (week 7 of study participation). ]
    Measures symptoms of depression and anxiety, total scores range from 0-42, higher scores indicate worse outcomes

  4. Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS) [ Time Frame: Timepoint 2 (week 7 of study participation). ]
    Measures pre-sleep hyperarousal, total scores range from 16-80, higher scores indicate worse outcomes

  5. Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) [ Time Frame: Timepoint 2 (week 7 of study participation). ]
    Measures symptoms of fatigue, total scores range from 9-63, higher scores indicate worse outcomes



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • 18 to 65 years of age
  • Not in state of crisis
  • Able to read and understand English
  • Experiences sleep difficulties or insomnia
  • Has chronic pain

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Under 18 or over 65 years of age
  • In a state of crisis
  • Does not read or understand English
  • Does not experience sleep difficulties or insomnia
  • Does not have chronic pain

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01188460


Locations
Canada, Ontario
The Ottawa Hospital, Pain Clinic
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1H 8L6
The Ottawa Hospital Rehabilitation Centre
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1H 8M2
Sponsors and Collaborators
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
The Ottawa Hospital
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Keith E Wilson, PhD The Ottawa Hospital Rehabilitation Centre

Responsible Party: Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01188460     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2009902
First Posted: August 25, 2010    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: February 19, 2018
Last Update Posted: February 19, 2018
Last Verified: August 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

Keywords provided by Ottawa Hospital Research Institute:
Insomnia
Chronic pain

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Chronic Pain
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
Pain
Neurologic Manifestations
Nervous System Diseases
Signs and Symptoms
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias
Sleep Wake Disorders
Mental Disorders