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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy +/- Armodafinil for Insomnia and Fatigue Following Chemotherapy

This study has been completed.
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Joseph Roscoe, University of Rochester Identifier:
First received: December 9, 2009
Last updated: December 16, 2016
Last verified: December 2016
This is a four-arm, randomized, controlled, clinical trial examining the efficacy of of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-I and armodafinil in reducing insomnia in 226 female breast cancer patients who report sleep disturbances following completion of chemotherapy.

Condition Intervention Phase
Breast Cancer
Drug: armodafinil
Drug: Placebo Comparator
Behavioral: CBT-I
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Supportive Care
Official Title: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy +/- Armodafinil for Insomnia and Fatigue Following Chemotherapy

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Joseph Roscoe, University of Rochester:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Change in Insomnia Severity Index From Baseline to Post-intervention [ Time Frame: ANCOVA was employed with multiple imputation on the post-intervention score (average of the two post-intervention weeks), controlling for the score at the time of consent (pre). ]
    The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) is a commonly used, 7-item psychometrically validated measure used to rate insomnia with 0-7 = absence of insomnia, 8-14 = subthreshold insomnia symptoms, 15-21 = moderate insomnia, and 22-28 = severe insomnia.

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Fatigue Will be Assessed by the Total Score of the Revised Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) . [ Time Frame: ANCOVA was employed with multiple imputation on the post-intervention score (average of the two post-intervention weeks), controlling for the score at the time of consent (pre). ]
    The revised Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) is a 9-item, patient-report instrument with established reliability and validity. The BFI allows for the rapid assessment of fatigue level in cancer patients and identifies those patients with severe fatigue. Three items ask patients to rate their fatigue "now," and fatigue at its "worst" and "usual" for the last 24 hours. The 11-point scales are bounded by 0 = "no fatigue" and 10 = "fatigue as bad as you can imagine." Using the same type of scales, the remaining questions ask patients to rate how their fatigue interferes with several functional domains, including general activity, walking, mood, work, and relations with others. These scales are bounded by 0 = "does not interfere" and 10 = "interferes completely." A global fatigue score (ranging from 0-10) can be obtained by averaging all the items on the BFI.

Enrollment: 138
Study Start Date: February 2008
Study Completion Date: April 2013
Primary Completion Date: April 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: 1 - CBT-I + placebo
CBT-I and placebo
Drug: Placebo Comparator
Placebo for 47 days
Behavioral: CBT-I
Seven weekly sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I)
Experimental: 2 - CBT-I + Armodafinil
CBT-I + Armodafinil
Drug: armodafinil
Armodafinil P.O. daily/47 days (3-days at 50mg, then 40 days at 100mg, then 4 days at 50mg)
Behavioral: CBT-I
Seven weekly sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I)
Placebo Comparator: 3 - Placebo only
Placebo only
Drug: Placebo Comparator
Placebo for 47 days
Experimental: 4 - Armodafinil only
Armodafinil only
Drug: armodafinil
Armodafinil P.O. daily/47 days (3-days at 50mg, then 40 days at 100mg, then 4 days at 50mg)

Detailed Description:

Treatment Protocol: CBT-I and armodafinil are being studied in a four-arm, randomized, controlled, clinical trial of 226 cancer survivors with chronic insomnia who are at least one month post treatment. The seven-week intervention is designed to determine the efficacy and acceptability of these treatment strategies in reducing insomnia in cancer survivors. Assessments will be made by questionnaires before, during, and two weeks following the study intervention. All ancillary treatments, as appropriate for control of symptoms caused by the cancer or its treatment may be administered as clinically indicated.

Withdrawal of Sleep Medications: All participants, prior to beginning the baseline data collection phase of the study, must have withdrawn from all sleep medications, including: prescription, over-the-counter, CAM and herbal remedies for at least one week prior to beginning the study.

CBT-I (Arms 3 & 4): CBT-I will be provided on an individual basis to all patients in study Arms 3 & 4 by a licensed clinical psychologist trained in CBT-I by Dr. Perlis. Subjects in these two study arms will receive 7 weeks of CBT-I, using a structured research grade protocol developed at the UR-SNRL. This manualized intervention, which exists as a published text: Perlis et al., 2005, includes four essential components: Sleep Restriction Therapy, Stimulus Control Instruction, Sleep Hygiene Guidelines, and a session of cognitive therapy.

Data Collection: Patients will complete the Insomnia Severity (ISI) at the time of consent and every Friday during weeks 3-11 of the study. A follow-up call by study personnel will be made to each participant not currently receiving CBT-I on each of these Fridays to promote compliance, prompt completion, assess potential side effects of study medication, and answer patient questions.


Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Have a diagnosis of cancer.
  2. Be able to understand written and spoken English
  3. Be able to swallow medication
  4. Have preferred sleep phase between 7:30 pm and 11:00 am
  5. Be willing to discontinue any medications/OTCs/Herbals for sleep for the 11-week study period
  6. Be presumed to be in a state of cancer remission; use of tamoxifen, an aromatase inhibitor, and/or Herceptin is permitted
  7. Self-report problems with insomnia for at least three months and that the insomnia began or got worse with the onset of cancer or treatment
  8. Have completed chemotherapy and or radiation not less than one month ago. Note: Both types of treatment must be completed at least one month ago if patient receives chemotherapy and radiation therapy and there is no outer limit to how long ago treatments were completed.)
  9. Report insomnia on the SDS-CL at a frequency of at least 3 days a week

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Have ever taken modafinil or had CBT-I therapy. CBT-I therapy for the sake of this protocol will be defined as any cognitive behavioral-based treatment for insomnia that includes a sleep restriction component.
  2. Have an unstable medical or psychiatric illness (Axis I-current or within the last 5 years)
  3. Have a history of seizures or severe headaches, or uncontrolled cardiac disease or hypertension
  4. Be presently taking an anticoagulant or a corticosteroid
  5. Have taken amphetamines (e.g., methylphenidate, pemoline [Cylert®] or similar psycho stimulants) within the past 30 days
  6. Be currently pregnant or nursing
  7. Have a history of substance abuse, or meet criteria for current alcohol abuse or dependence as assessed by a CAGE test score >=2 or an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score >=13
  8. Have surgery planned within the study period
  9. Have have ever been diagnosed with sleep apnea or have sleep apnea as indicated by endorsing either question 11 (I wake up choking or gasping for air) or question 12 (My bed partner has noticed that I seem to stop breathing) on the Sleep Disorders Symptom Check at the "Often" or "Frequently" level.
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01091974

United States, New York
University of Rochester James P. Wilmot Cancer Center
Rochester, New York, United States, 14642
United States, Pennsylvania
Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Rochester
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Principal Investigator: Joseph A Roscoe, PhD University of Rochester
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Joseph Roscoe, Research Associate Professor, University of Rochester Identifier: NCT01091974     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: UCCS07090
1R01CA126968-01A1 ( US NIH Grant/Contract Award Number )
Study First Received: December 9, 2009
Results First Received: February 5, 2015
Last Updated: December 16, 2016

Keywords provided by Joseph Roscoe, University of Rochester:
Breast cancer

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
Signs and Symptoms
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Sleep Wake Disorders
Nervous System Diseases
Mental Disorders
Wakefulness-Promoting Agents
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inducers
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action processed this record on May 25, 2017