Clinical Study of an Aluvia-based HAART Regimen for Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV Transmission in Africa
Therapeutic options to prevent vertical transmission of HIV remain limited. Combination antiretroviral therapy in the form of HAART (Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy) is generally recommended in the developed world, both for its ability to reduce maternal viral load, and thus the likelihood of transmission, as well as for its prevention of drug resistance mutations, which might otherwise reduce future options for therapy in the mother, infant, or both. Exclusive formula-feeding is also recommended in the developed world (where clean water sources & adequate hygiene is reliably available) to prevent HIV transmission through breastmilk, however, this is not yet a feasible option in many developing world settings due to economic, infrastructure, social and infant-health reasons.
The investigators propose use of a HAART regimen during pregnancy and breastfeeding that is based upon the recently released Aluvia tablets (tablet form of LOPINAVIR/RITONAVIR or LOP; established capsule form is known as Kaletra) to improve maternal virological control and thus mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT).
Hypothesis: Maternal use of HAART containing Zidovudine, 3TC and Aluvia (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) can prevent antepartum, and intrapartum transmission of HIV, as well as allow exclusive and then subsequent complementary feeding to be carried out with minimum risk to the mother and infant.
- Study regimen: ZDV/3TC (combivir) + 2 Aluvia Tabs all PO BID to start at 14-30 weeks gestational age (GA) and continue through labor and as long as the mother breastfeeds
- Peripartum single dose Nevirapine (sdNVP) (Note: Mothers will also be receiving ZDV as part of the study regimen) to mother and sdNVP + 5 days postpartum ZDV to the infant will be given as per current Zambian practice
- Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) x 6 months then complementary foods to be added, with aim for a gradual wean of breastfeeding by infant age of 12-13 months. In case of inability to wean by 13 months, however, drug will be continued until the mother has achieved a complete wean.
- Follow-up period: Mother & child will be followed to an infant age of 24 months, as per schedule-of-visits (approx every 3 months)
Major outcome measure: infant survival and negative dbs (dried blood spot) PCR 3 months post weaning.
|HIV||Drug: Lopinavir/Ritonavir (200/50 mg) Tablets + Zidovudine + 3TC||Phase 4|
|Study Design:||Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Use of an Aluvia Based Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Regimen in the Prevention of Mother to Child HIV Transmission (PMTCT) Antepartum, Intrapartum and Postpartum in Africa|
- HIV Negative Survival of Infants [ Time Frame: to be assessed at: infant age 6 months, 3 months post-weaning from breastfeeding, infant/child age 24 months ]
- Maternal survival, viral suppression and CD4 response [ Time Frame: End-of-Study (Infant actual/predicted age 18-24 months) ]
- Emergence of viral drug resistance in mothers or infants [ Time Frame: End-of-Study (infant actual/predicted age 18-24 months) ]
- Incidence of diarrhea, malnutrition/growth failure and pneumonia in infants [ Time Frame: Infant actual/predicted age 1 year and 18-24 months ]
- Cost-effectiveness analysis [ Time Frame: End-of-Study (infant actual/predicted age 24 months) ]
- Efficacy of therapy in prevention of transmission with supplemental feeding among those infants who remain PCR negative at 6 months of age [ Time Frame: Infant age 6 months and 3-months post-wean ]
|Study Start Date:||December 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||May 2012|
|Primary Completion Date:||November 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Aluvia-based HAART
Study regimen: ZDV/3TC (combivir) + 2 Aluvia Tabs all PO BID to start at 14-30 weeks gestational age (GA) and continue through labor and as long as the mother breastfeeds
Drug: Lopinavir/Ritonavir (200/50 mg) Tablets + Zidovudine + 3TC
Zidovudine 300mg PO BID + 3TC 150 mg PO BID + Lopinavir/Ritonavir (200/50 mg) two tablets PO BID
Study completed. Results are being published and the manuscript is in press as of June 2015
Ngoma MS, Misir A, Mutale W, Rampakakis E, Sampalis JS, Elong A, Chisele S, Mwale A, Mwansa JK, Mumba S, Chandwe M, Pilon R, Sandstrom P, Wu S, Yee K and Silverman MS. Efficacy of WHO recommendation for continued breastfeeding and maternal cART for prevention of perinatal and postnatal HIV transmission in Zambia. Journal of the International AIDS Society; 2015
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01088516
|Principal Investigator:||Michael Silverman, MD||University of Toronto|