Effect of Timing of Umbilical Cord Clamping on Haematological and Clinical Outcomes of Infants
In developing countries up to 50% of children become anemic by 12 months of age(1. Iron deficiency anemia is a major risk factor for neonatal and infantile mortality and morbidity in Pakistan. It has detrimental effects on neurodevelopment of infants and may be irreversible even after iron therapy(2). Type of cost effective interventions during perinatal period for prevention of anemia in later infancy is limited. Delayed cord clamping has a beneficial effect on prevention of anemia in later infancy because of increased iron stores at birth(3. However there are controversies in incorporating delayed cord clamping practice in the management of third stage of labour globally(4) Paucity of national guidelines and lack of substantial data in Pakistan on this topic strongly necessitates such study trials. This study may contribute to develop a protocol on the timing of cord clamping which will be cost effective in prevention of iron deficiency anemia in the investigators infantile population.
The investigators will conduct a randomized controlled trial and the investigators hypothesis is that delayed cord clamping will result in higher hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct) and ferritin at third month as compared to early cord clamping.
- To study the effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct) at birth, 48 hours and Hb, Hct and ferritin at three months of age.
- To study the effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on short term clinical profile of neonates like jaundice, respiratory distress, anemia, polycythemia etc. during fist 24 to 48 hours of life.
To assess whether delayed cord clamping is associated with undesirable effects on mothers followed till 48 hours postpartum.
|Anemia Ferritin Complications Hemorrhage Jaundice||Procedure: Early Cord Clamping Procedure: Delayed Cord Clamping||Phase 2|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Effect of Timing of Umbilical Cord Clamping on Haematological and Clinical Outcomes of Infants at Birth and Three Months of Age|
- Hematological Characteristics of Infants [ Time Frame: From Birth to Third month of age ]Infantile hematological characteristics ( hemoglobin, hematocrit at birth(cord),48 hours of age and Hemoglobin, Hematocrit and serum ferritin at third month).
- Short term Clinical Profiles [ Time Frame: From birth to 48 hours of age ]Short term neonatal clinical profile (respiratory distress, polycythemia hematocrit ≥65%), neonatal anemia , clinical jaundice hyperbilirubinemia),requirement of phototherapy or exchange transfusion)
- Maternal Characteristics [ Time Frame: From Delivery to 48 hours postpartum ]Maternal characteristics ( Primary PPH, duration of third stage of labour ≥ 30 min, mean blood loss during the third stage of labour, need for therapeutic oxytocin, manual removal of placenta and Hb at 48 hours postpartum).
|Study Start Date:||August 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||April 2010|
|Primary Completion Date:||March 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: Early Cord Clamping Group
Early Cord Clamping Group (Clamping of Umbilical Cord within 30 seconds of shoulder delivery of neonate).
Procedure: Early Cord Clamping
Early Umbilical Cord Clamping (Clamping of Umbilical Cord within 30 seconds of shoulder delivery of neonate)
Experimental: Delayed Cord Clapming Group
Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping Group (Clamping of Umbilical Cord within 2 minutes of shoulder delivery of neonate).
Procedure: Delayed Cord Clamping
Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping (Clamping Umbilical Cord after 2 minutes of shoulder delivery of neonate
Delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) results in approximately 30-40 ml additional placental blood volume transfusion to the neonate and 30-35 mg increase in iron stores at birth(5).The neonatal benefits include higher hematocrit (Hct), higher red blood cells flow to vital organs, better cardiopulmonary adaptation, additional iron stores and less anemia in later infancy(6).It is evident from different studies that no adverse effects of DCC have been noticed in mothers as well as in their neonates(7). The beneficial effect of delayed cord clamping is not only observed in term infants but it has a positive impact on preterm and small for gestational age (SGA) infants too. The requirement of packed cell transfusion in first six months has significantly reduced as noticed from different studies(8).It is also associated with lower risk of intraventricular hemorrhage and late onset sepsis in preterm infants(9).
The practice of early cord clamping (ECC) is commonly following in our maternity units. It is believed that it reduces the risk of post partum haemorrhage (PPH) and duration of third stage of labour. But at the same time it does not provide any benefit to the neonate(4).Conversely it increases the possibility of fetomaternal transfusion, hypovolemic damage, neonatal anemia, respiratory distress syndrome and type 2 diabetes in later life(5).The risk of iso immunization in rhesus negative mothers are also increased with ECC(10).
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01081977
|The Aga Khan University Hospital|
|Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, 75300|
|Study Director:||Dr Zulfiqar Bhutta, MBBS, PhD||The Aga Khan University|
|Principal Investigator:||Dr Huma Shaireen, MBBS, FCPS||The Aga Khan University|