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Ritonavir-boosted Lopinavir Monotherapy

This study has been completed.
Information provided by:
Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute Identifier:
First received: October 27, 2009
Last updated: November 10, 2011
Last verified: October 2009
To assess 48-week treatment responses, tolerability, and steady-state minimum plasma concentrations of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir monotherapy for salvage therapy in HIV-1 infected patients who failed antiretroviral regimens containing NRTI and NNRTI.

Condition Intervention Phase
Drug: lopinavir/ritonavir soft gel capsule
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Treatment Outcomes and Plasma Level of Ritonavir-boosted Lopinavir Monotherapy Among HIV-infected Patients Who Had Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) and NNRTI Failure: A Pilot Study

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • To assess 48-week treatment responses of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) monotherapy as salvage regimen. [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ]

Enrollment: 40
Study Start Date: April 2007
Study Completion Date: February 2011
Primary Completion Date: February 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: lopinavir/ritonavir Drug: lopinavir/ritonavir soft gel capsule
Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir in soft gel formulation at 400/100 mg and lamivudine at 150 mg were given twice daily.
Other Name: Kaletra

Detailed Description:

Currently, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is widely prescribed as an initial therapy for treatment naïve HIV-infected patients, particularly in many resource-constrained countries. However, in patients who have delayed detection of treatment failure in this setting, the virus is often resistant to most existing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and NNRTIs even failing from the first regimen. As a consequence, constructing the potent salvage regimens that combined 2 or 3 fully active drugs from existing drug classes is often impossible in many resource-constrained countries where new agents, such as integrase inhibitor and chemokine receptor antagonist, are neither available nor affordable. Nevertheless, the goal of attaining undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA is remain mandatory. To date, several clinical studies derived from the western countries that included 2 or more active drugs clearly demonstrate effective therapeutic strategies for antiretroviral (ARV)-experienced HIV-1 infected patients. Hence, using ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor in a salvage therapy was considered to be an option in the resource-constrained countries and the limitations of remaining active NRTIs usually lead to ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy as a salvage regimen.

Among several previous reports using ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir monotherapy has been extensively studied so far. Different strategies of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir monotherapy have been explored; however, most related clinical trials studied this regimen as either a treatment simplification strategy or induction therapy in treatment-naïve patients. A strategy to use ritonavir-boosted lopinavir monotherapy as a salvage regimen is not available. On the other hand, previous studies showed that continuation of lamivudine after emerging of the M184V mutation had somewhat benefit on immunological response and clinical progression in patients who had limited options of salvage regimens. Moreover, there is neither additional any other mutation nor increase resistance to other antiretroviral drugs. Thus, this is the reason why we added lamivudine to decrease viral fitness in the study regimen. The objective of this study was to assess 48-week treatment responses, tolerability, and steady-state minimum plasma concentrations of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir monotherapy for salvage therapy in HIV-1 infected patients who failed antiretroviral regimens containing NRTI and NNRTI.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. HIV-1 infected patients >18 years of age,
  2. failed NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy with M184V, thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) and NNRTI-associated mutations
  3. had plasma HIV-1 RNA >1,000 copies/mL.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Had a history of exposure to protease inhibitor
  2. Receipt a medication that has drug-drug interactions with lopinavir.
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01002898

Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute
Nonthaburi, Thailand, 11000
Sponsors and Collaborators
Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute
  More Information

Responsible Party: Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute Identifier: NCT01002898     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 4/2551
Study First Received: October 27, 2009
Last Updated: November 10, 2011

Keywords provided by Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute:
Treatment experienced

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-HIV Agents
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors processed this record on May 23, 2017