Comparison of Ampicillin / Sulbactam vs. Ampicillin / Gentamicin for Treatment of Intrapartum Chorioamnionitis: a Randomized Controlled Trial

This study has suspended participant recruitment.
(We are currently performing and interim analysis for possible neonatal organism resistance to antibiotic regimens.)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Natali Aziz, Stanford University Identifier:
First received: April 7, 2009
Last updated: September 25, 2012
Last verified: September 2012
Chorioamnionitis is an infection of the placenta and amniotic membranes (bag of waters) surrounding the baby inside of a pregnant woman prior to delivery. This infection is somewhat common and is routinely treated with antibiotics given to the mother both before and after the baby is born. Currently it is not known what is the best choice of antibiotics to treat this type of infection, but commonly used treatments include Unasyn (ampicillin/sulbactam) or ampicillin/gentamicin. We plan to compare these two different antibiotic regimens to see if one is better than the other at treating and preventing bad outcomes from chorioamnionitis in women and babies.

Condition Intervention Phase
Drug: Unasyn
Drug: Ampicillin/gentamicin
Phase 2
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Comparison of Ampicillin / Sulbactam vs. Ampicillin / Gentamicin for Treatment of Intrapartum Chorioamnionitis: a Randomized Controlled Trial

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Stanford University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Proportion of patients in each arm experiencing treatment failure as indicated by resolution of maternal infection [ Time Frame: 24 hours after delivery ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Maternal adverse effects including side effects, labor abnormalities, type of delivery, blood loss, post partum infectious complication. [ Time Frame: At discharge ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Neonatal adverse outcomes. [ Time Frame: At discharge ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Estimated Enrollment: 282
Study Start Date: May 2009
Estimated Study Completion Date: May 2014
Estimated Primary Completion Date: May 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Unasyn (ampicillin/sulbactam) Drug: Unasyn
Unasyn 3 grams intravenously every 6 hours, plus intravenous normal saline placebo dose every 8 hours until 24 hours post delivery.
Active Comparator: Ampicillin/gentamicin Drug: Ampicillin/gentamicin
Gentamicin 1.5mg/kg intravenously every 8 hours plus ampicillin 2 grams intravenously every 6 hours until 24 hours post delivery.

Detailed Description:
Patients who meet inclusion criteria will be approached upon admission to Labor and Delivery. A study staff member will describe the study and offer participation. If a patient agrees to participate, she will sign research protocol and HIPAA consent forms and receive a copy of these forms. The patient's chart will be flagged, indicating that she is a study participant. The patient's prenatal care and labor and delivery will be managed by her physician per standard of care at the physician's discretion, including routine intrapartum treatment of Group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization using ampicillin. When a participating patient is diagnosed with chorioamnionitis, she will be randomized in a blinded fashion to Arm 1 (Unasyn) or Arm 2 (ampicillin/gentamicin). She will be treated as per standard of care with tylenol, intravenous fluids, and her labor managed per physician discretion. From the time of diagnosis of chorioamnionitis until determination of treatment success or failure in the postpartum period, the patient will receive intravenous antibiotics per the protocol arm to which they have been assigned. If a patient has already been receiving ampicillin for GBS, the ampicillin will be discontinued when the study drugs are initiated. In arm 1, the study drugs will consist of Unasyn 3 grams intravenously every 6 hours, plus intravenous normal saline placebo dose every 8 hours. In arm 2, the study drugs will consist of gentamicin 1.5mg/kg intravenously every 8 hours plus ampicillin 2gm intravenously every 6 hours. For all patients, clindamycin will be given intravenously at the time of clamping of the umbilical cord in the event of a cesarean delivery, and continued as part of the antibiotic regimen as per standard of care for cesarean section in the setting of chorioamnionitis. With the exception of the saline placebo doses, both the Unasyn regimen and the ampicillin/gentamicin regimen are efficacious and widely utilized regimens for the treatment of intrapartum chorioamnionitis, and do not represent a deviation from standard of care. After delivery, if the patient experiences a treatment failure as defined below, her medical care will be managed at the discretion of the attending physician as per standard of care, and her antibiotic regimen will be unblinded. After delivery, prior to discharge from the hospital, the patient will be asked to answer a short questionnaire enquiring about side effects experienced during treatment for chorioamnionitis. The patient may receive a phone call within 14 days of delivery to assess whether she has received treatment for postpartum complications at an outside institution after discharge from the hospital.

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 55 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Pregnant women in labor or undergoing induction of labor
  2. Greater than or equal to 18 years of age
  3. Diagnosed with chorioamnionitis as defined by maternal temperature > or = 38.0 degrees Centigrade plus at least one of the following: maternal tachycardia (heart rate >110), fetal tachycardia (fetal heart rate baseline >160), purulent amniotic fluid, uterine tenderness.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Allergy or adverse reaction to penicillin or ampicillin, gentamicin, or sulbactam
  2. Having received antibiotics for the treatment of preterm premature rupture of membranes or other condition within the last 7 days
  3. Acute or chronic renal disease or insufficiency (creatinine >1.0)
  4. Hearing loss
  5. Major fetal congenital anomalies or intrauterine fetal demise
  6. Neutropenia
  7. HIV
  8. Myasthenia gravis or other neuromuscular disorder
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00879190

United States, California
Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford, California, United States, 94305
Sponsors and Collaborators
Stanford University
Principal Investigator: Natali Aziz MD Stanford University
  More Information

Responsible Party: Natali Aziz, Clinical Assistant Professor, Stanford University Identifier: NCT00879190     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: SU-03192009-2018  15562 
Study First Received: April 7, 2009
Last Updated: September 25, 2012
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Fetal Diseases
Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture
Obstetric Labor Complications
Placenta Diseases
Pregnancy Complications
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors processed this record on May 30, 2016