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The Effect of Intravenous Erythromycin on Gastric Emptying in Non-fasted Patients Before Emergency Total Anesthesia

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00827216
First Posted: January 22, 2009
Last Update Posted: June 23, 2015
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Christoph Czarnetzki, University Hospital, Geneva
  Purpose
In this study the investigators want to investigate the effect of a short intravenous infusion of Erythromycine on gastric emptying on patients considered "full stomac" and scheduled for Emergency operation. A gastroscopy will be done after intubation to controll the effect of the perfusion.

Condition Intervention Phase
Aspiration of Gastric Contents Gastric Emptying Drug: Placebo Drug: Erythromycin Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: The Effect of Intravenous Erythromycin on Gastric Emptying in Patients Undergoing Rapid Sequence Intubation for Full Stomach - A Randomised, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Study

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Christoph Czarnetzki, University Hospital, Geneva:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Immediately after intubation an upper GI endoscopy will be done. The following primary endpoint will be recorded: Stomach clear from any content: yes or no (dichotomous). [ Time Frame: 10 minutes ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Acidity and Estimation of the volume of gastric content if stomach not empty (ml). [ Time Frame: 10 minutes ]
  • Drug-related allergic reactions. [ Time Frame: 30 minutes ]
  • Arrhythmia. [ Time Frame: 30 minutes ]
  • Gastrointestinal cramps after study drug administration but before intubation. [ Time Frame: 30 minutes ]
  • Nausea or vomiting after study drug administration but before intubation. [ Time Frame: 30 minutes ]
  • Regurgitation with or without broncho-aspiration at induction. [ Time Frame: 30 minutes ]

Enrollment: 132
Study Start Date: January 2009
Study Completion Date: April 2013
Primary Completion Date: April 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Placebo Comparator: Physiologic saline Drug: Placebo
For all patients, a standardised volume of 10 ml of the study drug (will be diluted in 90 ml NaCl 0.9% (total volume, 100 ml). Both, the study drug and the 90 ml NaCl bag will be prepared by the pharmacy. Using sterile syringes, the investigator will withdraw from this solution as many millilitres as necessary to obtain a volume that corresponds to 1 ml per kg bodyweight of the patient (i.e. for a 67 kg patient, 33 ml would be with withdrawn). Thus, the maximum volume that can be administered to a patient will be 100 ml (i.e. for a patient weighing ≥100 kg). Twenty minutes prior to the scheduled induction of anaesthesia, patients will receive their study drug solution as an intravenous infusion during 5 min.
Active Comparator: Erythromycine Drug: Erythromycin
For all patients, a standardised volume of 10 ml of the study drug (will be diluted in 90 ml NaCl 0.9% (total volume, 100 ml). Both, the study drug and the 90 ml NaCl bag will be prepared by the pharmacy. Using sterile syringes, the investigator will withdraw from this solution as many millilitres as necessary to obtain a volume that corresponds to 1 ml per kg bodyweight of the patient (i.e. for a 67 kg patient, 33 ml would be with withdrawn). Thus, the maximum volume that can be administered to a patient will be 100 ml (i.e. for a patient weighing ≥100 kg). Twenty minutes prior to the scheduled induction of anaesthesia, patients will receive their study drug solution as an intravenous infusion during 5 min. The regimen corresponds to 3 mg/kg of erythromycin.
Other Name: Erythrocine®

Detailed Description:

Urgent or emergency surgery requires that fasting rules observed in elective settings are not respected. Patients who are anesthetized in such conditions are at risk for regurgitation and subsequent broncho-aspiration during induction of anaesthesia due to a full stomach; they often have ingested food or liquids before the injury, or they may have swallowed blood from oral or nasal injuries. Also, gastric emptying is delayed in these patients due to the stress of trauma.1 Already in 1946, Mendelson described the consequences of bronchoaspiration.2 Since, anaesthetists and emergency physicians have tried to avoid broncho-aspiration in emergency patients using premedication with pro-kinetic drugs (for instance, metoclopramide) or its complications with antacid substances, and through the use of a rapid sequence intubation procedure with cricoid pressure.

The incidence of aspiration is low, about 1.4 to 6 in 10'000 anaesthetics.3 About 6 in 100'000 anaesthetics will lead to a pulmonary complication due to broncho-aspiration and about 1 in 100'000 patients is likely to die due to aspiration.4 Thus, although episodes of broncho-aspiration are rare, efficacious prevention of this potentially lethal complication is important. One method to reduce the risk of broncho-aspiration during induction of anaesthesia is the pharmacological reduction of the gastric content (i.e. pre-treatment).

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effect of a short intravenous infusion of erythromycin 3 mg/kg, administered 20 min before intubation on gastric emptying, in adults scheduled for rapid sequence intubation for full stomach. After intubation a gastroscopy will be done to see if there is any content in the stomac. The secondary objective is the assessment of tolerability and safety of a single intravenous dose of preoperative erythromycin in surgical patients.

This study is a single centre, stratified (according to emergency setting), randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study.

  Eligibility

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Adults, age ≥18 years, male or female.
  • American Society of Anaesthesiology [ASA] status I, II or III.
  • Non-starving patients presenting for surgery.
  • Patients able to read and understand the information sheet and to sign the consent form.
  • If the patient is female and of childbearing potential, she must have a negative pregnancy test

Exclusion Criteria:

  • A history of allergy or hypersensitivity to erythromycin or other macrolides.
  • Concomitant use of terfenadine, astemizole, cisapride, pimozid, cyclosporine, clarithromycine.
  • Patient with acute intermittent porphyria.
  • Acute or subacute necrosis of the liver, acute or subacute hepatitis, acute liver trauma
  • Acute renal failure, acute glomerulonephritis, nephritic syndrome, chronic renal failure with electrolyte disorders, uremia
  • Exacerbated asthma, exacerbated chronic obstructive lung disease, acute pulmonary infection
  • Coronary heart disease (unstable angina, MI within the last 6 months), decompensated cardiac insufficiency, aortic aneurysm
  • Polyneuropathy (for instance, due to diabetes mellitus)
  • Patients with oesophageal and pharyngeal disease (i.e. oesophageal varices, oesophageal and pharyngeal cancer, Zenker's diverticulum).
  • Status after gastric surgery, gastric bypass surgery, Nissen operation
  • Patients with life threatening illness or injury needing immediate surgery
  • Patients with moderate to severe head trauma (GCS on admission <13)
  • Psychological or psychiatric disorders.
  • Dementia or inability to understand the study protocol.
  • Women who are pregnant or are breast feeding.
  • Patient scheduled for ileus surgery.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00827216


Locations
Switzerland
University Hospital of Geneva
Geneva, Switzerland, 1211
Sponsors and Collaborators
University Hospital, Geneva
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Christoph A Czarnetzki, MD, MBA Division of Anesthesiology, University Hospital of Geneva
Study Chair: Martin R Tramer, MD, PhD Division of Anesthesiology, University Hospital of Geneva
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Responsible Party: Christoph Czarnetzki, Responsable Investigator, University Hospital, Geneva
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00827216     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NAC 06-225
Swissmedic 2008 DR 2321 ( Other Identifier: Swiss Agency for Therapeutic products )
First Submitted: January 21, 2009
First Posted: January 22, 2009
Last Update Posted: June 23, 2015
Last Verified: June 2015

Keywords provided by Christoph Czarnetzki, University Hospital, Geneva:
Gastric emptying
emergency anesthesia
intravenous erythromycin

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Anesthetics
Erythromycin
Erythromycin Estolate
Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate
Erythromycin stearate
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Gastrointestinal Agents
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action