Try the modernized beta website. Learn more about the modernization effort.
Working… Menu

Intramuscular (IM) Olanzapine Versus IM Haloperidol Plus Lorazepam for Acute Agitation in Schizophrenia

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00797277
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 25, 2008
Results First Posted : September 15, 2014
Last Update Posted : September 15, 2014
Yu-Li Hospital
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Taiwan University Hospital

Brief Summary:
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intramuscular 10 mg olanzapine versus intramuscular 5 mg haloperidol plus lorazepam 2 mg in the treatment of acute agitated schizophrenic patients of Taiwanese populations.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Schizophrenia Schizoaffective Disorder Agitation Drug: IM olanzapine Drug: IM haloperidol plus lorazepam Phase 3

Detailed Description:

To date, there have been no published reports of clinical studies of IM olanzapine versus IM haloperidol plus lorazepam in acute schizophrenia patients with moderate to severe degree of agitation. The latter combination of treatment is used quite often as a traditional way to treat agitated schizophrenia patients.

Study Design:

This is a randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group study, consisting of screening and treatment phase. Patients completing the screening phase would be randomized to receive either 10mg olanzapine IM or 5 mg haloperidol plus 2 mg lorazepam IM . The ratio of randomization was 1:1. Treatment assignments are based on a computer-generated randomization code supplied by central unit with block designs. Patients can receive a maximum of 3 injections within the first 24-hour period. Second and third injections are used under the clinical judgment of investigators. The second injection is allowed after 2-hour has elapsed since first injection. The third injection is allowed after 4-hour have passed since the second injection. Prohibited medications include antiarrythmics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antiemetics, and other psychotropic drugs.

Efficacy Assessments:

Patients are assessed by the study investigators at the screening visit and at 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes after first injection. The primary efficacy measure is PANSS-EC, which includes the items tension, uncooperativeness, hostility, poor impulse control, excitement and is derived from the PANSS by its originators using a principal-components factor analysis. Agitation is further assessed by the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES) (Copyright 1998, Eli Lilly and Company; all rights reserved). Clinical Global Impression-Severity(CGI-S)scale37 is used to assess general psychiatric condition. For each patient, the same rater conducted the assessment throughout the study.

Safety assessments:

During the 24-hour treatment period, safety is assessed by clinical examination and laboratory investigations, recording spontaneously reported adverse events, completing the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS) and Barnes Akathisia Scales (BAS).

Statistical Procedures:

The efficacy analyses were based on intent to treat (ITT) population defined as consisting of all randomized subjects. The last observation carried forward (LOCF) dataset was used to estimate the missing data. Data were analysed using statistical program R Language version 2.8.0 (, with significance set at p < .05. Demographic characteristics and clinical parameters at baseline were compared by treatment group using the t-test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables. The primary treatment comparison was 2-hour PANSS-EC scores after first injection. Continuous efficacy and safety data were evaluated by multiple linear regression, adjusting for treatment group, center, and treatment-by-center interaction. The treatment-by-center interaction was tested at the 0.10 significant levels and dropped from the model if it was not statistically significant. To compare the number difference in adverse events between two treatment groups, Fisher's exact test was used due to low cell counts.

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 67 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: An Open-label, Randomized Trial of Intramuscular (IM) Olanzapine Versus Intramuscular Combination of Haloperidol and Lorazepam in the Treatment of Acute Agitation in Schizophrenia
Study Start Date : July 2006
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2009
Actual Study Completion Date : June 2009

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: IM olanzapine
Patients of this arm received 10 mg IM olanzapine after randomization
Drug: IM olanzapine
10mg olanzapine IM
Other Name: zyprexa

Active Comparator: IM haloperidol plus lorazepam
Patients of this arm received 5 mg IM haloperidol plus 2 mg IM lorazepam after randomization
Drug: IM haloperidol plus lorazepam
IM 5 mg haloperidol plus IM 2 mg lorazepam
Other Name: haldol and ativan

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. The Change of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC) Score From Baseline to 120 Minutes After First Injection [ Time Frame: from baseline to 120 minutes after first injection ]
    The primary efficacy measure was PANSS-EC, which was derived from the PANSS by its originators using a principal-components factor analysis, and includes the items of tension, uncooperativeness, hostility, poor impulse control and excitement.22 The score of each item ranges from 1 (normal) to 7 (most severe), with a total sum score ranging from 5 to 35. The changes in PANSS-EC from baseline to 2 hours after the first injection were compared.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change of the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES) Score From Baseline to 120 Minutes After 1st Injection [ Time Frame: from baseline to 120 minutes after first injection ]
    Agitation was further assessed by the Agitation Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES) (Copyright 1998, Eli Lilly and Company), a single-item scale developed by Eli Lilly and Company on which 1 indicates marked agitation; 2, moderate agitation; 3, mild agitation; 4, normal; 5, mild calmness; 6, moderate calmness; 7, marked calmness; 8, deep sleep; and 9, unable to be aroused.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Men and non-pregnant, non-lactating women aged 18 to 65 years with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia (DSM-IV)
  • were hospitalized due to an acute relapse
  • were clinically agitated with a minimum total score of ≧ 14 on the five items of the PANSS-EC and at least one individual item score of ≧ 4 using the 1-7 scoring system prior to first IM injection of study drug.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • female subjects who were either pregnant or breast-feeding;
  • patients with acute, serious or unstable medical conditions;
  • treatment with benzodiazepines within 4 hours prior to the first IM study drug administration;
  • treatment with an injection depot neuroleptic within 1 injection interval prior to study drug administration;
  • history of allergic reaction or intolerance to study medication(s);
  • had a known diagnosis of dementia of any type, as defined in the DSM-IV.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00797277

Layout table for location information
Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital
Taipei, Taiwan, 100
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Taiwan University Hospital
Yu-Li Hospital
Layout table for investigator information
Study Director: Tzung-Jeng Hwang, MD, MPH, PhD Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: National Taiwan University Hospital Identifier: NCT00797277    
Other Study ID Numbers: 950107
First Posted: November 25, 2008    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: September 15, 2014
Last Update Posted: September 15, 2014
Last Verified: September 2014
Keywords provided by National Taiwan University Hospital:
schizoaffective disorder
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Psychomotor Agitation
Psychotic Disorders
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
Mental Disorders
Neurologic Manifestations
Nervous System Diseases
Psychomotor Disorders
Neurobehavioral Manifestations
Haloperidol decanoate
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Gastrointestinal Agents
Antipsychotic Agents
Tranquilizing Agents
Central Nervous System Depressants
Psychotropic Drugs
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Neurotransmitter Agents
Serotonin Agents
Dopamine Antagonists