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Amantadine for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury Irritability and Aggression: A Multi-site Study

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00779324
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 24, 2008
Results First Posted : September 10, 2021
Last Update Posted : July 12, 2022
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Indiana University
University of Washington
The Institute for Rehabilitaion and Research Foundation
Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital
Ohio State University
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Wake Forest University Health Sciences

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to study the effect of amantadine on irritability and aggression caused by traumatic brain injury.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Brain Injury Aggression Drug: Amantadine Hydrochloride Drug: Placebo Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

PURPOSE OF PROJECT: To study the effect of amantadine 100 mg administered twice daily compared to placebo on irritability from baseline to treatment Day 28.

SUMMARY OF PROJECT: It is anticipated that 168 subjects with 168 corresponding subject informants will be recruited for the study. Carolinas Rehabilitation, the lead center, and 5 collaborating centers will enroll approximately 28 subjects each.

Subjects will be recruited primarily from the clinics. Also, letters will be sent to patients in our data base. If the first encounter with research personnel is by telephone, the research assistant will obtain verbal (telephone) consent from the subject's informant for the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) for subject irritability. The score on this questionnaire must be ≥ 6 for qualification. This allows pre-screening to take place and avoid an unnecessary clinic visit.

Subjects who consent and qualify will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio, amantadine to placebo. Stratification to randomization group will occur based on the presence of depression defined by a Beck's Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) score ≥ 13. Randomized subjects will receive amantadine or placebo 100 mg twice daily every morning and 12 Noon. There will be 4 clinic visits. Visits will occur at baseline, for consenting and screening, day 28, day 60 and day 90. At all 4 clinic visits, both the subject and the informant will be given questionnaires regarding the subject's behavior and mood. Follow up phone calls will occur each week that the subject is not seen in the clinic until the end of the study. Follow up phone calls will assess for study medication compliance, adverse events and concomitant medication changes. Day 60 ends the period of the Randomized Clinical Trial phase of the study and the subjects will begin the 1 month continuation phase of the study when all participants receive active amantadine.

The following questionnaires will be used as measures of irritability for the subject and the informant: Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2), and Global Impression of Change.

The following questionnaires will be dispensed to the subject only: Short Form -12, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Brief Symptom Inventory, Family Assessment Device, Fatigue Impact Scale, and tests of cognitive function. The Glasgow Outcome Score-Extended will be completed by the research assistant using information obtained primarily from the informant.

The Investigator will complete the Clinical Global Impression of change at Visits 1, 2, 3, and 4.

History and Physical Exam, creatinine level (kidney function) will be obtained for safety and tolerability. Serum pregnancy tests will be drawn at screening for females of childbearing potential.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 168 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Multi-Center, Parallel-Group, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Amantadine Hydrochloride in the Treatment of Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury Irritability and Aggression: A Replication Study
Study Start Date : August 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date : April 2013
Actual Study Completion Date : May 2013


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Amantadine
Amantadine 100 mg every morning and Noon
Drug: Amantadine Hydrochloride
100 mg every morning and noon
Other Name: Symmetrel

Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Placebo tablets
Drug: Placebo
one placebo tablet every morning and 12 Noon




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Proportion of Participants With >2-point Increase on Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Irritability Domain Rated by Observer Day 28 [ Time Frame: Day 28 ]
    The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) is a 40-item rating scale developed to assess 12 behavioral domains. Only the NPI-Irritability (NPI-I) domain was used for this study. NPI-I measures irritability with items including: bad temper, rapid mood changes, sudden anger, impatience, crankiness, argumentative. The rater selects the frequency (1-3) and severity (1-4) of the most problematic of these behavioral aspect(s) over the preceding month. The NPI score is the product of the frequency and severity for the NPI most problematic item score. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants with greater than two-point increase on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Irritability domain. The total range is 1 (least irritability) - 12 (worst irritability).


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Irritability Domain Assessed by Observer Day 28 [ Time Frame: Day 28 ]
    The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) is a 40-item rating scale developed to assess 12 behavioral domains. Only the NPI-Irritability (NPI-I) domain was used for this study. NPI-I measures irritability with items including: bad temper, rapid mood changes, sudden anger, impatience, crankiness, argumentative. The rater selects the frequency (1-3) and severity (1-4) of the most problematic of these behavioral aspect(s) over the preceding month. The NPI score is the product of the frequency and severity for the NPI most problematic item score. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants with greater than two-point increase on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Irritability domain. The total range is 1 (least irritability) - 12 (worst irritability).

  2. Proportion of Participants With >2-point Increase on Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Irritability Domain Rated by Participant Day 28 [ Time Frame: Day 28 ]
    The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) is a 40-item rating scale developed to assess 12 behavioral domains. Only the NPI-Irritability (NPI-I) domain was used for this study. NPI-I measures irritability with items including: bad temper, rapid mood changes, sudden anger, impatience, crankiness, argumentative. The rater selects the frequency (1-3) and severity (1-4) of the most problematic of these behavioral aspect(s) over the preceding month. The NPI score is the product of the frequency and severity for the NPI most problematic item score. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants with greater than two-point increase on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Irritability domain. The total range is 1 (least irritability) - 12 (worst irritability).

  3. Change in Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Irritability Domain Assessed by Participants Day 28 [ Time Frame: Day 28 ]
    The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) is a 40-item rating scale developed to assess 12 behavioral domains. Only the NPI-Irritability (NPI-I) domain was used for this study. NPI-I measures irritability with items including: bad temper, rapid mood changes, sudden anger, impatience, crankiness, argumentative. The rater selects the frequency (1-3) and severity (1-4) of the most problematic of these behavioral aspect(s) over the preceding month. The NPI score is the product of the frequency and severity for the NPI most problematic item score. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants with greater than two-point increase on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Irritability domain. The total range is 1 (least irritability) - 12 (worst irritability).

  4. Clinical Global Impressions Day 28 [ Time Frame: 28 Days ]
    Study physician's impression of change since study onset. Clinicians Global Impressions of Change (CGI) is a sensitive, standardized tool to assess psychopharmacologic treatment response completed by the study physician. The Global Improvement (GI) CGI subscale documented the clinician's impression of change. The GI uses a 7-point scale to assess beneficial and negative effects. Low GI values (1 -3) indicate improvement; higher values (4-7) represent worsening.

  5. Proportion of Participants With >2-point Increase on Neuropsychiatric Inventory Irritability Domain Rated by Observers Day 60 [ Time Frame: 60 days ]
    As described above for the primary measure, assessed as a secondary measure at Day 60. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) is a 40-item rating scale developed to assess 12 behavioral domains. Only the NPI-Irritability (NPI-I) domain was used for this study. NPI-I measures irritability with items including: bad temper, rapid mood changes, sudden anger, impatience, crankiness, argumentative. The rater selects the frequency (1-3) and severity (1-4) of the most problematic of these behavioral aspect(s) over the preceding month. The NPI score is the product of the frequency and severity for the NPI most problematic item score. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants with greater than two-point increase on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Irritability domain. The total range is 1 (least irritability) - 12 (worst irritability).

  6. Proportion of Participants With >2-point Increase on Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Irritability Domain Rated by Participant Day 60 [ Time Frame: Day 60 ]
    The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) is a 40-item rating scale developed to assess 12 behavioral domains. Only the NPI-Irritability (NPI-I) domain was used for this study. NPI-I measures irritability with items including: bad temper, rapid mood changes, sudden anger, impatience, crankiness, argumentative. The rater selects the frequency (1-3) and severity (1-4) of the most problematic of these behavioral aspect(s) over the preceding month. The NPI score is the product of the frequency and severity for the NPI most problematic item score. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants with greater than two-point increase on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Irritability domain. The total range is 1 (least irritability) - 12 (worst irritability).

  7. Change in Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Irritability Domain Assessed by Observers Day 60 [ Time Frame: Day 60 ]
    The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) is a 40-item rating scale developed to assess 12 behavioral domains. Only the NPI-Irritability (NPI-I) domain was used for this study. NPI-I measures irritability with items including: bad temper, rapid mood changes, sudden anger, impatience, crankiness, argumentative. The rater selects the frequency (1-3) and severity (1-4) of the most problematic of these behavioral aspect(s) over the preceding month. The NPI score is the product of the frequency and severity for the NPI most problematic item score. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants with greater than two-point increase on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Irritability domain. The total range is 1 (least irritability) - 12 (worst irritability).

  8. Change in Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Irritability Domain Assessed by Participants Day 60 [ Time Frame: Day 60 ]
    The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) is a 40-item rating scale developed to assess 12 behavioral domains. Only the NPI-Irritability (NPI-I) domain was used for this study. NPI-I measures irritability with items including: bad temper, rapid mood changes, sudden anger, impatience, crankiness, argumentative. The rater selects the frequency (1-3) and severity (1-4) of the most problematic of these behavioral aspect(s) over the preceding month. The NPI score is the product of the frequency and severity for the NPI most problematic item score. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of participants with greater than two-point increase on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Irritability domain. The total range is 1 (least irritability) - 12 (worst irritability).

  9. Clinical Global Impressions Day 60 [ Time Frame: 60 days ]
    Study physician's impression of change since study onset. Clinicians Global Impressions of Change (CGI) is a sensitive, standardized tool to assess psychopharmacologic treatment response completed by the study physician. The Global Improvement (GI) CGI subscale documented the clinician's impression of change. The GI uses a 7-point scale to assess beneficial and negative effects. Low GI values (1 -3) indicate improvement; higher values (4-7) represent worsening.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   16 Years to 75 Years   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Closed head injury (defined as impaired brain function resulting from externally inflicted trauma without penetrating injury) at least 6 months prior to enrollment
  • Irritability that is either new or worse than the level of irritability before the traumatic brain injury, by report of the Observer or person with TBI
  • Age at time of enrollment: 16 to 75 years
  • Voluntary informed consent and authorization of participant and informant
  • Subject and informant willing to comply with the protocol
  • Informant-rated NPI Irritability Domain score 6 or greater (moderate-to-severe irritability)
  • Medically and neurologically stable during the month prior to enrollment
  • If taking antidepressant, anxiolytic, hypnotic, or stimulant medications, no change anticipated in these medications during the month prior to enrollment or during the 90-day participation
  • No change in therapies or medications planned during the 90-day participation
  • No surgeries planned during the 90-day participation
  • Vision, hearing, speech, motor function, and comprehension sufficient to complete interviews
  • Observer (e.g.: family member, close friend, employer) with whom subject interacts sufficiently to observe occurrences of irritability. The observer interacts with the participant for a period long enough and of a nature to be able to judge the participant's irritability. The interactions would need to be adequate to judge observer distress over the irritability, severity of irritability and frequency of irritability on the following scale: < once weekly; once per week; several times per week, but not every day; essentially continuous.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Previous participation in the Carolinas TBI Model System amantadine irritability study
  • Ingestion of amantadine hydrochloride during the month prior to enrollment
  • Potential subject without a reliable informant
  • Penetrating head injury as defined by head injury due to gunshot, projectile or foreign object
  • Injury < 6 months prior to enrollment
  • Inability to interact sufficiently for communication with caregiver
  • Clinical signs of active infection
  • Diagnosis of seizure in the month prior to enrollment
  • Creatinine clearance <60 mL/min
  • Pregnancy (Beta-HCG + females of child-bearing potential) and lactating females
  • Concurrent use of first generation neuroleptic agents or phenelzine
  • History of schizophrenia or psychosis
  • Active concern of schizophrenia or psychosis
  • Diagnosis of progressive or additional neurologic disease that affects brain function, except stroke that occurs at th same time as the TBI
  • Previous allergy or adverse reaction to amantadine hydrochloride

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00779324


Locations
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United States, Indiana
Indiana University and the Rehabilitation Hospital of Indiana
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46254
United States, Massachusetts
Spaulding Rehabilitation
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
United States, North Carolina
Carolinas Rehabilitation
Charlotte, North Carolina, United States, 28203
United States, Ohio
The Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43210
United States, Texas
TIRR Memorial Herman
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
United States, Washington
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98195
Sponsors and Collaborators
Wake Forest University Health Sciences
Indiana University
University of Washington
The Institute for Rehabilitaion and Research Foundation
Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital
Ohio State University
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Flora M Hammond, MD Carolinas Rehabilitation
Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Wake Forest University Health Sciences
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00779324    
Other Study ID Numbers: 09-08-11B
H133A080035 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: NIDRR )
First Posted: October 24, 2008    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: September 10, 2021
Last Update Posted: July 12, 2022
Last Verified: August 2021
Keywords provided by Wake Forest University Health Sciences:
traumatic brain injury
irritability
aggression
amantadine
behavior
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Brain Injuries
Brain Injuries, Traumatic
Wounds and Injuries
Aggression
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Craniocerebral Trauma
Trauma, Nervous System
Behavioral Symptoms
Amantadine
Antiparkinson Agents
Anti-Dyskinesia Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Dopamine Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
Analgesics
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents