Routine Use of Antiretroviral Therapy to Prevent Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in the Kafue District of Zambia
The investigators will enroll a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women accessing PMTCT services, to better understand the incremental benefits (e.g. reduction in HIV transmission, improvements in HIV-free survival) and risks (e.g. drug toxicities) of the routine HAART strategy, in comparison to HIV-infected pregnant women accessing the Zambian Standard of Care services.
The investigators will test the hypothesis that routine use of HAART produces significant reductions in HIV transmission rates, with only minimal side effects.
|HIV Infections||Drug: Routine three-drug antiretroviral prophylaxis||Phase 4|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Routine Use of Antiretroviral Therapy to Prevent Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in the Kafue District of Zambia (Impact of HAART to Prevent Pediatric AIDS in Rural Zambia).|
- HIV Infection [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
- HIV Infection [ Time Frame: 6 weeks, 6 months and 24 months ]
- Infant survival [ Time Frame: 12 and 24 months ]
- HIV-free survival [ Time Frame: 12 months and 24 months ]
- Incidence of maternal toxicity to HAART regimens [ Time Frame: 24 months ]
|Study Start Date:||May 2009|
|Study Completion Date:||January 2012|
|Primary Completion Date:||January 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Routine three-drug antiretroviral prophyalxis
Cohort of 160 HIV-infected women, approached at > 28 weeks gestation and initiated on routine HAART for the purposes of PMTCT.
Drug: Routine three-drug antiretroviral prophylaxis
Women who are identified as HIV-infected will be offered routine combination antiretroviral prophylaxis starting at 28 weeks gestation (timing consistent with Zambian national guidelines for short-course ZDV). The first-line combination provided to pregnant women will be standardized following consultation with the Ministry of Health, but will likely include ZDV, lamivudine (3TC) and either NVP or lopinavir / ritonavir. In women who with moderate to severe anemia, ZDV is substituted with stavudine (d4T). In accordance with the Zambian national guidelines, any patients who are started on NVP will begin with a once daily dose for two weeks before increasing to the regular twice daily schedule
No Intervention: Control arm
A cohort of 160 women will be enrolled from the control clinics, from 28 weeks gestation onward. At these sites, the antenatal zidovudine will be offered, with provision of single-dose nevirapine for self-administration in labor. This practice is in accordance with the current standard of care recommended by the Zambian National Guidelines for PMTCT.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00753324
|Lusaka, Zambia, 34681|
|Principal Investigator:||Benjamin Chi, M.D||Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia|