Functional Rehabilitation for Older Patients With Schizophrenia (FROPS)
|Schizophrenia Aging||Behavioral: CBSST+PDA Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training Behavioral: PDA-only|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Functional Rehabilitation for Older Patients With Schizophrenia (FROPS)|
- Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at mid-treatment (3-mo), at end-of-treatment (6-mos), and at 6-mo follow-up (12 mos post-baseline) ]The ILSS is a self-report measure in an interview format to assess everyday functioning in ten domains: Appearance and Clothing, Personal Hygiene, Care of Personal Possessions, Food Preparation/Storage, Health Maintenance, Money Management, Transportation, Leisure, Job Seeking, and Job Maintenance. Scale ranges from 0 to 1. Subscales are averaged to yield composite score. Higher scores represent a higher level of functioning.
- Comprehensive Module Test (CMT) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at mid-treatment (3-mo), at end-of-treatment (6-mos), and at 6-mo follow-up (12 mos post-baseline) ]The Comprehensive Module Test (CMT) is an assessment of CBSST skills acquisition in three domains: Communication Skills Test, Problem Solving Test, and Thought Challenging Test. The total CMT score ranges from 0-33. Higher total scores represent higher level of CBSST skills acquisition.
- Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) [ Time Frame: Baseline, at mid-treatment (3-mo), at end-of-treatment (6-mos), and at 6-mo follow-up (12 mos post-baseline) ]The PANSS is 30 item semi-structured clinical interview designed to assess positive and negative symptoms. The PANSS consists of 7 items on the positive symptom subscale, 7 items on the negative symptom subscale, and 16 items on the general psychopathology subscale. Each item in the subscale is rated from 0 (absence of symptom) to 7 (extreme symptom severity). Scores of each subscale are summed to yield a total score range of 30 (Absence of symptoms) to 210, where higher scores represent more severe symptoms.
|Study Start Date:||July 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||November 2010|
|Primary Completion Date:||November 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
PDA-Assisted Cognitive-Behavioral Social Skills Training (CBSST+PDA): The CBSST rehabilitation intervention will be combined with the use of a PDA to facilitate homework completion and progress towards recovery goal attainment in consumers.
PDA-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training (CBSST+PDA) includes weekly group therapy sessions, each 90 minutes in length, with 6-8 patients (maximum of 10) were held for 24 weeks. The intervention integrated cognitive behavioral and social skills training interventions modified for use with older patients with psychosis. Participants utilized PDAs to assist with homework completion and compliance.
Other Name: PDA-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training
Active Comparator: CBSST
Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training (CBSST): CBSST is a psychosocial rehabilitation intervention that combines skills from cognitive behavioral therapy and social skills training to assist consumers in improving functioning and recovery goal attainment.
Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training
Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training includes weekly group therapy sessions, each 2.5 hours (30 min lunch break) in length, with 6-8 patients (maximum of 10) were held for 24 weeks. The intervention integrated cognitive behavioral and social skills training interventions modified for use with older patients with psychosis.
Other Name: CBSST
Active Comparator: PDA-Only
PDA-only: To control of device contact, the PDA-only arm will not receive CBSST and will only carry a PDA with access to the basic features of the device.
To control for the effects of having a PDA, a third group was provided PDAs for the same duration as the other two groups. Participants had access to the same basic functions (calendar, contact list, etc.) as the CBSST+PDA group, but did not have any homework or weekly group meetings.
Aging and psychosis are major priority areas for VA. This project is a continuation of a Merit Review Program, in which we developed, manualized and conducted randomized controlled trials of a novel psychosocial rehabilitation intervention for older people with schizophrenia, called cognitive-behavioral social skills training (CBSST). We found that CBSST improved community functioning in these patients. CBSST, however, is an intensive program that may burden VA mental health clinics with demands for additional staff and financial resources and Veterans with travel and time demands. To reduce these burdens and barriers to implementation of CBSST, we developed a computer-assisted CBSST intervention that takes advantage of available handheld computer technology (personal data assistants or PDAs). Therapist contact is cut 50% and replaced by handheld computer-assisted CBSST intervention tools. The project will examine whether computer-assisted CBSST is as effective as the full CBSST program, while improving client satisfaction and reducing burden and cost. A randomized-controlled clinical trial comparing 3 treatment conditions (computer-assisted CBSST, CBSST, and a PDA-only control condition) will be conducted. Participants will be recruited, treated for 6 months and followed longitudinally for 6 months after treatment. A multidimensional evaluation of treatment outcome, including functioning (primary outcome), CBSST skills acquisition, and symptoms will be conducted at baseline, mid-treatment, end of treatment (6-months after baseline), and 6-month follow-up (12 months after baseline). Factors that might mediate improvement in CBSST will be assessed, including homework adherence, cognitive insight (metacognition and belief flexibility), and defeatist performance beliefs (e.g., "Why try, I'll just fail again").
The proposed project will also use innovative computer-assisted Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMAc) methods to measure outcomes. EMAc is an ambulatory data collection technique that permits the real time, real world monitoring of behaviors, moods, and cognitions. Participants are signaled by handheld computers several times throughout the day to respond to questionnaires, which eliminates recall and information-processing biases that can compromise the validity of traditional self-report and interview measures. Outcomes in the proposed trial will be assessed using traditional measures, as well as EMAc measures.
Specific Aims: (1) To determine whether computer-assisted CBSST is as effective as the full CBSST program (in prior project) and supportive contact, despite reduced burden and cost. (2) To examine whether EMAc measures of functioning and psychotic symptoms are sensitive to change in CBSST. (3) To examine whether increased cognitive insight, reduced defeatist performance beliefs, and greater homework adherence mediate outcomes in CBSST.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00712075
|United States, California|
|VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego|
|San Diego, California, United States, 92161|
|Principal Investigator:||Eric L. Granholm, PhD||VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego|