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China Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence for Life (AFL)

This study has been completed.
Beijing Ditan Hospital
Second People's Hospital, Dali
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Lora Sabin, Boston University Identifier:
First received: April 11, 2008
Last updated: May 11, 2017
Last verified: May 2017
This study focuses on collecting and analyzing quantitative data related to adherence to antiretroviral treatment from patients in Dali, China, over a one-year time-frame and generating preliminary data on an intervention designed to improve adherence to antiretroviral treatment among the study population.

Condition Intervention
HIV Infections
Behavioral: Electronic drug monitoring feedback data

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: No masking
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence for Life Pilot Study: Phases II and III

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Boston University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Mean Adherence, as Measured by Electronic Drug Monitors (EDM) [ Time Frame: Month 12 (last month of 6-month intervention period) and 6-month post-intervention period ]
    We used the electronic drug monitors (EDM) adherence metric that was found to be most strongly associated with viral suppression (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml) in analysis of the pre-intervention data, EDM 'proportion taken within dose time' (see Gill et al, 2009). This measure estimated monthly adherence as the proportion of prescribed doses taken on time, e.g., within 1 hour of scheduled dose time ([number of doses taken ±1 hour of dose time] / [total number of prescribed doses]).

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Change in CD4 Count [ Time Frame: Month 6, Month 12 ]
    Mean change in CD4 count (cells/µL) between Month 6 and Month 12 (pre-intervention vs. last month of intervention)

Enrollment: 80
Study Start Date: June 2006
Study Completion Date: November 2007
Primary Completion Date: November 2007 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Intervention
The intervention group patients were given their electronic drug monitoring feedback data at each monthly visit. The study coordinator would quickly calculate whether the patient's adherence was below 95% in the previous month. If so, that patient was flagged for enhanced counseling with a clinic doctor and this counseling was based on a printout containing the electronic drug monitoring data.
Behavioral: Electronic drug monitoring feedback data
All patients were given electronic drug monitors that can monitor pill-taking behavior. In the intervention arm, patients and their attending doctors were given the electronic drug monitoring data on pill bottle openings at each monthly visit for use in adherence counseling sessions. Control arm patients were not given their electronic drug monitoring feedback data and their counseling sessions were based on self-reported adherence, as per standard of care in Dali.
No Intervention: Comparison
The comparison group patients were not given the data from the electronic data monitoring feedback data. Instead, they filled out a self report form that all patients fill out. If they indicated in this report that their adherence in the previous was less than 95%, then they were flagged for "enhanced counseling" with a doctor. This counseling was based on the patient's self report. Thus both groups received enhanced counseling if they indicated poor adherence, but only the intervention group were given their electronic data output.

Detailed Description:
This study is a continuation of "Adherence for Life (AFL): Phase I: Exploratory Research" (H-25203), which focused on collecting and analyzing qualitative data on adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) among HIV-positive patients in Dali, Yunnan Province, China. Like Phase I, the AFL Pilot Study (Phases II and III) will be a collaborative effort between US researchers based in Boston, MA and Chinese researchers based in Beijing and Dali. The current study, Phases II and III, will focus on collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data related to adherence to ART over a one-year time-frame and generating preliminary data on an intervention designed to improve adherence to ART among the study population. The questionnaires used in these phases of the study will draw on the results of Phase I as well as standardized instruments adapted to the Chinese context. The specific aims of the study are as follows: (1) To determine the best surrogate measure of ART adherence among the study population; (2) To determine ART adherence rates in this population; (3) To analyze the relationship between adherence factors and measured adherence rates; and (4) To generate preliminary effectiveness data on an intervention that makes use of electronic drug monitors (EDM) to improve ART adherence.

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients who are 18 years of age or older, currently on antiretroviral treatment or about to begin it, live in the study catchment area, and are willing to provide informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Persons below the age of 18 years, persons who are not currently on or about to start antiretroviral treatment, persons who live outside the study catchment area, or person not willing to provide informed consent.
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00661258

China, Yunnan
Dali Second People's Hospital
Dali, Yunnan, China
Sponsors and Collaborators
Boston University
Beijing Ditan Hospital
Second People's Hospital, Dali
Principal Investigator: Lora L Sabin, PhD Center for International Health and Development, Boston University
  More Information

Responsible Party: Lora Sabin, Associate Professor, Boston University Identifier: NCT00661258     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: H-25495
GHS-A-00-03-00030-00 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: GHS-A-00-03-00030-00 )
Study First Received: April 11, 2008
Results First Received: April 19, 2013
Last Updated: May 11, 2017
Individual Participant Data  
Plan to Share IPD: No

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by Boston University:
HIV antiretroviral treatment adherence intervention China
adherence to antiretroviral treatment
treatment experienced

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases processed this record on May 22, 2017