Evaluating Vocational Materials for Incarcerated Veterans With Mental Illness or Substance Abuse
|Mental Illness||Other: Basic Vocational Services Other: Self-Study Other: Group Program|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: No masking
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Evaluating Vocational Materials for Incarcerated Veterans With Mental Illness|
- Time Till Employment in Days [ Time Frame: 12 months ]Number of days until first day of competitive employment
- Test Economic Impact Between Manual Conditions (e.g., Cost-benefit Ratio) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]overall economic impact, in dollars, will be evaluated by the following formula: income - healthcare cost - cost of incarceration
|Actual Study Start Date:||June 1, 2009|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||September 29, 2017|
|Primary Completion Date:||October 1, 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Basic Vocational Services
Veteran receives basic vocational services
Other: Basic Vocational Services
Active Comparator: Self-Study
Veteran participates in self-study vocational program
Veteran receives self-study resources
Active Comparator: Group program
Group based vocational program
Other: Group Program
Veteran participates in group vocational program
The Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics (BOJS, 2000) reported in 2000 over 225,000 veterans were incarcerated in the nations' criminal facilities; 1 in 5 of these veterans saw combat during service. Approximately 78,000 veterans annually will be released from incarceration with 30% of those released from incarceration are re-arrested within 3 months, 44.1% re-arrested at one year, and 67.5% within 3 years. These numbers are higher with those with serious mental illnesses: 54.3% re-arrest rates at one year and 72% at 3 years.
The living status that many of these veterans with felonies return to is dire. In a survey of dually diagnosed and mentally ill offenders, 22% of mentally ill offenders and 43% of mentally ill offenders with substance addiction believed they would be homeless upon release. Ex-felons often return to more disadvantaged communities where employment is scarce (La Vigne, Mamalian, Travis, & Visher, 2003). Employers are reluctant to hire those with a history of incarceration due to biases against ex-offenders or due to legal liability (Connerley, Arvey, & Bernardy, 2001) or other biases (Holzer, 1996). Overall, employers have been shown to be less likely to hire ex-convicts than those with little work experience or those who are receiving welfare benefits (Holtzer, 1996).
The goal of this study is to identify successful vocational re-integration modalities for mental health and/or substance dependent veterans recently released from incarceration and those with felony histories. Specific Goals are 1) test time to employment between manual conditions; 2) test total time employed over the 12 months following training period; and 3) test economic impact between manual conditions The study will be a controlled 3 group randomized design. The independent variable will be the amount of vocational services received. Veterans will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) Basic vocational services but no manualized vocational program; 2) self-study of the manualized program; and 3) a full program consisting of the manualized program with vocational staff and peer vocational support specialists. All veterans enrolled in the study will have access to a Veteran's Employment Resource Center to provide infrastructure for job search.
Three primary dependent variables will be used. The first is the time till employment. The second is the total time employed during the 12 months following training. The third will be the economic impact of the training through differences in services required (e.g. emergency room visits, food stamps, cost of shelters, costs of rearrests) and income earned. Type of job skills, job history, and time incarcerated are some of the variables that potentially will be statistically controlled.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00648115
|United States, Texas|
|VA North Texas Health Care System Dallas VA Medical Center, Dallas, TX|
|Dallas, Texas, United States, 75216|
|Principal Investigator:||James P. LePage, PhD||VA North Texas Health Care System Dallas VA Medical Center, Dallas, TX|