Primary Outcome Measures:
- Best corrected visual acuity gain after bevacizumab therapy. [ Time Frame: 3 month, 1 year, 2 year ]
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- fluorescein leakage of ocular neovascularization by fluorescein angiography and macular thickness by Optical Computed tomography. [ Time Frame: 3 month ]
Members of the American Society of Retinal specialists, the American Uveitis Society and the International Uveitis Society were invited to contribute their consecutive cases of ION not responding to standard therapy (corticosteroids (CST) 4 or immunosuppression) and treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents. Cases with concomitant or prior cystoid macular edema, diabetes mellitus, or age-related macular degeneration were excluded. Most of the patients had initially been treated in a stepwise fashion with high doses of oral CST, with or without intraocular or subtenon CST or immunosuppressive therapy (as monitored by a rheumatologist). All patients opted to intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment after detailed information about the limited experience, potential side effects and the off-label character of the drug. The risks and benefits of intravitreal therapy were discussed with the patients (or their guardians) who signed an informed consent. Primary outcome measure: Best corrected visual acuity measured as logMAR. Secondary outcome measures:macular thickness on OCT, and stoppage of leakage by IVFA.