Effects of Fish Oils on Inflammation and Insulin Resistance
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
|Official Title:||Effects of Fish Oils on Inflammation and Insulin Resistance|
- Treatment of insulin resistant subjects with fish oils will reduce adipose tissue inflammation. [ Time Frame: December 2009 ]
- Fish oils improve peripheral insulin sensitivity through a reduction of intramyocellular lipid. [ Time Frame: December 2009 ]
|Study Start Date:||January 2007|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||December 2017|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||December 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: 1
4g Lovaza (omega-3 fatty acid) daily.
Drug: omega-3 fatty acid
4g of omega-3 fatty acid daily by mouth for 12 weeks.
Other Name: Lovaza
Placebo Comparator: 2
placebo (4 non-active capsules daily)
4 inert capsules daily by mouth for 12 weeks.
The development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) represents a complex series of events, involving abnormalities in adipose tissue lipid distribution and insulin action. Along with an increase in adipose tissue mass is an increase in inflammation brought about by macrophages that infiltrate adipose tissue. These macrophages express inflammatory cytokines such as TNF- and IL-6, which are correlated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, and suggest that metabolic syndrome and diabetes are conditions characterized by a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve insulin sensitivity via activation of PPAR- , and there is much evidence that PPAR agonists also have anti-inflammatory properties.
Fish oils are rich sources of Omega-3 fatty acids and there is a large literature on the potential benefits of fish oils on lowering serum triglycerides, cardiovascular protection, and immune modulation, and there is evidence that fish oils also activate PPAR . Hence, the focus of this study will be on subjects with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, but who do not yet have diabetes. We plan to treat insulin resistant subjects with fish oils and ask the following questions.
Hypothesis 1. The treatment of insulin resistant subjects with fish oils will reduce adipose tissue inflammation.
Aim 1. From blood samples drawn before and after treatment, we will measure levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines.
Aim 2. Adipose tissue biopsies will be performed before and after fish oil treatment. From the adipose biopsies, we will quantitate cytokine expression, macrophage number, and we will look for evidence of macrophage apoptosis.
Aim 3. We will determine whether fish oil treatment increases the adipose tissue secretion and serum level of the high molecular weight form of adiponectin.
Hypothesis 2. The reduction in inflammatory markers occurs through an activation of PPAR by the fish oils.
Aim 4. Adipose tissue and macrophages will be treated in vitro with fish oils in the presence and absence of a PPAR inhibitor. We will determine whether fish oils stimulate the secretion of the high molecular weight adiponectin isoform from adipose tissue and whether they induce apoptosis from macrophages, and whether this process is inhibited by the PPAR inhibitor.
Hypothesis 3. Fish oils improve peripheral insulin sensitivity through a reduction in intramyocellular lipid, and an improvement in muscle insulin signal transduction.
Aim 5. Before and after treatment with fish oils, insulin sensitivity will be measured, along with intramyocellular lipid and genes involved in insulin action and muscle lipid oxidation.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00579436
|United States, Kentucky|
|University of Kentucky Medical Cener|
|Lexington, Kentucky, United States, 40475|
|Principal Investigator:||Philip A. Kern, M.D.||University of Kentucky|