The Discriminative Effects of Tramadol in Humans
|Opioid Abuse Opioid Addiction Stimulant Abuse Stimulant Addiction||Drug: tramadol Drug: hydromorphone Drug: methylphenidate Drug: placebo||Phase 1 Phase 2|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Participant, Care Provider, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Medications Development for Drug Abuse Disorders|
- Accuracy of testing of acquisition [ Time Frame: 1 day ]
- Generalization results for experimental conditions [ Time Frame: 1 day ]
- Proportions of identifications as training conditions [ Time Frame: 1day ]
- Psychomotor/cognitive performance measures [ Time Frame: 1 day ]
- Physiologic measures [ Time Frame: 1 day ]
- Self-reported opioid agonist effects [ Time Frame: 1 day ]
- Self-reported stimulant effects [ Time Frame: 1 day ]
- Observer ratings of opioid and stimulant effects [ Time Frame: 1 day ]
|Study Start Date:||November 2007|
|Study Completion Date:||August 2011|
|Primary Completion Date:||April 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
This is a human laboratory study that tests the effects of tramadol as a step in the possible development of this medication as a new treatment for opioid dependence. Tramadol is a mild/moderate mu agonist opioid currently marketed as an analgesic that has a unique profile of effects. One of the primary metabolites of tramadol, mono-O-demethyltramadol (referred to as M1) exerts opioid agonist effects at the mu receptor. In addition, tramadol and M1 produce reuptake blockade of monoamines, and this latter effect may positively influence its analgesic efficacy, in addition to influencing the subjective effects produced by tramadol. Preclinical evidence suggests that tramadol's effects on monoamine reuptake may have antidepressant qualities as well. Given tramadol's diverse pharmacodynamic profile, a systematic characterization of its subjective effects in opioid-experienced subjects would provide valuable information regarding its abuse liability, and its potential utility as a treatment for opioid dependence.
The characterization of an opioid medication's profile can be accomplished through a variety of experimental procedures. One useful procedure for assessing the profile of an opioid is a drug discrimination procedure. In this methodology, subjects are first trained to discriminate reference drugs such as placebo and an opioid agonist, and then administered doses of a novel compound to determine how like (or unlike) it is to the reference training conditions. Our laboratory has a long history of using this drug discrimination methodology to study and to characterize opioids with varying opioid receptor activity profiles. Studies have generally included either two or three training conditions in humans. Using this technique in volunteers, studies have characterized the profile of a number of opioids including (for example) butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, and buprenorphine.
While most of these studies testing the effects of mixed agonist-antagonist opioids have used an opioid agonist and placebo as the training conditions, tramadol's profile of effects suggests that there may be a non-opioid component of action at serotonin and norepinephrine sites that will be useful to distinguish. In particular, it is of interest to determine the extent to which tramadol is identified as being like a prototypic mu agonist opioid, whether it is substantially identified as being like a non-opioid compound, and if this non-opioid component is related to enhancement of monoamine effects. In order to provide a meaningful non-opioid contrast training condition, this study will compare different doses of tramadol to training conditions of placebo, a mu agonist opioid, and a prototypic stimulant.
Overall, this evaluation will provide a greater understanding of the subjective effect profile of tramadol in comparison to a prototypic mu opioid and a prototypic stimulant. If tramadol is to be useful in the treatment of opioid dependence, a thorough assessment of its subjective effects in experienced opioid and stimulant abusers is warranted.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00499746
|United States, Maryland|
|Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit|
|Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21224|
|Principal Investigator:||Eric C Strain, M.D.||Johns Hopkins University|