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B-Lymphocyte Immunotherapy in Islet Transplantation

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00468442
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Lack of efficacy)
First Posted : May 2, 2007
Last Update Posted : March 21, 2016
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Brief Summary:
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells are destroyed, resulting in poor blood sugar control. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and effectiveness of islet transplantation, combined with the immunosuppressive medications and medications to support islet survival for treating type 1 diabetes in individuals experiencing hypoglycemia unawareness and severe hypoglycemic episodes.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Biological: Allogeneic Pancreatic Islet Cells Biological: Antithymocyte globulin Biological: Daclizumab Biological: Rituximab Drug: Sirolimus Phase 2

Detailed Description:

Type 1 diabetes is commonly treated with the administration of insulin, either by multiple insulin injections or by a continuous supply of insulin through a wearable pump. Insulin therapy allows long-term survival in individuals with type 1 diabetes; however, it does not guarantee constant normal blood sugar control. Because of this, long-term type 1 diabetic survivors often develop vascular complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, an eye disease that can cause poor vision and blindness, and diabetic nephropathy, a kidney disease that can lead to kidney failure. Some individuals with type 1 diabetes develop hypoglycemia unawareness, a life-threatening condition that is not easily treatable with medication and is characterized by reduced or absent warning signals for hypoglycemia. For such individuals, pancreas or pancreatic islet transplantation are possible treatment options. Unfortunately, insulin independence among islet transplant recipients tends to decline over time. New strategies aimed at promoting engraftment of transplanted islets are needed to improve the clinical outcomes associated with this procedure. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of islet transplantation, when combined with an immunosuppressive medication regimen containing rituximab. This regimen is intended to treat type 1 diabetes in individuals experiencing hypoglycemia unawareness and severe hypoglycemic episodes. This study will also seek to improve the understanding of determinants of success and failure of islet transplants for type 1 diabetes.

Eligible participants will be randomly assigned to this study or the Phase 3 islet transplantation study (DAIT CIT-07). Participants in this study will receive up to three separate islet transplants and a regimen of immunosuppressive medications consisting of antithymocyte globulin (ATG), sirolimus, and rituximab. They will begin receiving ATG, sirolimus, and rituximab 2 days prior to the first islet transplant. ATG will continue to be given until Day 2 post-transplant, and sirolimus will be given for the duration of the study. They will receive additional rituximab on Days 5 and 12 post-transplant.

Transplantations will involve an inpatient hospital stay and infusion of islets into the portal vein. Participants who do not achieve or maintain insulin independence by Day 75 post-transplant will be considered for a second islet transplant. Participants who remain dependent on insulin for longer than 1 month after the second transplant and who show partial graft function will be considered for a third islet transplant. Daclizumab or basiliximab will be used in place of ATG for the second and third transplants, if they are necessary. Participants who do not meet the criteria for a subsequent transplant and do not have a functioning graft will enter a reduced follow-up period.

There will be approximately 15 study visits following each transplant. A physical exam, review of adverse events, and blood collection will occur at most visits. A chest x-ray, abdominal ultrasound, electrocardiogram, quality of life questionnaires, urine collection, and glomerular filtrating rate (GFR) testing will occur at some visits. Participants will also test their own blood glucose levels at least four times per day throughout the study. A 12-month follow-up period will take place after the participant's last transplant.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 2 participants
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: B-Lymphocyte Immunotherapy in Islet Transplantation: Toward Calcineurin-Inhibitor Free Immunosuppression (CIT-05)
Study Start Date : November 2006
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 2011
Actual Study Completion Date : September 2011

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Allogeneic Pancreatic Islet Cells
Participants will receive up to three islet transplants and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy.
Biological: Allogeneic Pancreatic Islet Cells
transplant of islet cells injected into the portal vein of the liver

Biological: Antithymocyte globulin
Immunosuppressive that selectively depletes activated T-cells and depletes resting T-cells in a dose-dependent manner.
Other Name: ATG

Biological: Daclizumab
Will replace antithymocyte globulin in all islet transplantations after the first one
Other Name: Zenapax

Biological: Rituximab
Depletes transient B-cells
Other Name: Rituxan

Drug: Sirolimus
Maintenance immunosuppressive therapy
Other Name: Rapamune

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Insulin independence [ Time Frame: 75 days after a single islet transplant ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. reduction in insulin requirements, HbA1c, MAGE, LI, HYPO score, fasting glucose, beta score, quality of life [ Time Frame: 75 days and 1 year following first and final infusion ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Mentally stable and able to comply with study procedures
  • Clinical history compatible with type 1 diabetes with onset at less than 40 years of age, insulin dependence for at least 5 years at study entry, and a sum of age and insulin dependent diabetes duration of at least 28
  • Absent stimulated C-peptide (less than 0.3 ng/ml) 60 and 90 minutes post-mixed-meal tolerance test
  • Involvement of intensive diabetes management, defined as:

    1. Self-monitoring of glucose values no less than a mean of three times each day averaged over each week
    2. Administration of three or more insulin injections each day or insulin pump therapy
  • Under the direction of an endocrinologist, diabetologist, or diabetes specialist with at least three evaluations the 12 months prior to study enrollment
  • At least one episode of severe hypoglycemia in the past 12 months, defined as an event with one of the following symptoms: memory loss; confusion; uncontrollable behavior; irrational behavior; unusual difficulty in awakening; suspected seizure; seizure; loss of consciousness; or visual symptoms in which the participant was unable to treat him/herself and which was associated with either a blood glucose (BG) level < 54 mg/dL [3.0 mmol/L] or prompt recovery after oral carbohydrate, intravenous glucose, or glucagon administration, in the past 12 months prior to study enrollment
  • Reduced awareness of hypoglycemia. More information about this criterion, including specific definition of hypoglycemia unawareness, is in the protocol.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m2 or weight less than or equal to 50 kg
  • Insulin requirement of more than 1.0 IU/kg/day or less than 15 U/day
  • HbA1c greater than 10%
  • Untreated proliferative diabetic retinopathy
  • Systolic blood pressure higher than 160 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure higher than 100 mmHg
  • Measured glomerular filtration rate using iohexol of less than 80 ml/min/1.73m2. More information about this criterion is in the protocol.
  • Presence or history of macroalbuminuria (greater than 300 mg/g creatinine)
  • Presence or history of panel-reactive anti-HLA antibody levels greater than 20% by flow cytometry. More information about this criterion is in the protocol.
  • Pregnant, breastfeeding, or unwilling to use effective contraception throughout the study and 4 months after study completion
  • Active infection, including hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, or tuberculosis. More information about this criterion is in the protocol.
  • Negative for Epstein-Barr virus by IgG determination
  • Invasive aspergillus, histoplasmosis, or coccidioidomycosis infection within one year prior to study enrollment
  • History of malignancy except for completely resected squamous or basal cell carcinoma of the skin
  • Known active alcohol or substance abuse
  • Baseline Hgb below the lower limits of normal, lymphopenia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia
  • History of Factor V deficiency
  • Any coagulopathy or medical condition requiring long-term anticoagulant therapy after transplantation or individuals with an INR greater than 1.5
  • Severe coexisting cardiac disease, characterized by any one of the following conditions:

    1. Heart attack within the last 6 months
    2. Evidence of ischemia on functional heart exam within the year prior to study entry
    3. Left ventricular ejection fraction less than 30%
  • Persistent elevation of liver function tests at the time of study entry
  • Symptomatic cholecystolithiasis
  • Acute or chronic pancreatitis
  • Symptomatic peptic ulcer disease
  • Severe unremitting diarrhea, vomiting, or other gastrointestinal disorders that could interfere with the ability to absorb oral medications
  • Hyperlipidemia despite medical therapy (fasting LDL cholesterol greater than 130 mg/dl, treated or untreated; and/or fasting triglycerides greater than 200 mg/dl)
  • Receiving treatment for a medical condition that requires chronic use of systemic steroids, except the use of 5 mg or less of prednisone daily, or an equivalent dose of hydrocortisone, for physiological replacement only
  • Treatment with antidiabetic medication other than insulin within the past 4 weeks
  • Use of any investigational agents within the past 4 weeks
  • Received a live attenuated vaccine(s) within 2 months of study entry
  • Any medical condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, will interfere with safe participation in the trial
  • Treatment with any immunosuppressive regimen at the time of enrollment
  • A previous islet transplant
  • A previous pancreas transplant, unless the graft failed within the first week due to thrombosis, followed by pancreatectomy and transplant occurred more than 6 months prior to enrollment

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00468442

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United States, Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
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Study Chair: Ali Naji, MD, PhD University of Pennsylvania

Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier: NCT00468442     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: DAIT CIT-05
First Posted: May 2, 2007    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 21, 2016
Last Verified: February 2016

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Insulin dependence
Hypoglycemia unawareness

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System Diseases
Antilymphocyte Serum
Immunosuppressive Agents
Calcineurin Inhibitors
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Antineoplastic Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antirheumatic Agents
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
Antifungal Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action