Treating Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder With rTMS
|Obsessive Compulsive Disorder||Device: refractory transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) Device: Sham condition|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Treating Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder With Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Double-blind Sham Controlled Longitudinal Study|
- Degree of change on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Scale [ Time Frame: intermittent ]
|Study Start Date:||June 2006|
|Study Completion Date:||December 2011|
|Primary Completion Date:||December 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Device: refractory transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
Bilateral rTMS will be delivered according to the following protocol: high frequency left (HFL) stimulation will initially be applied at 20 Hz, in 25 trains of 1.5 second duration with a 30 second interval between trains and at 100% of the RMT for a total of 25 minutes of stimulation. Following this HFR stimulation will be applied at the same parameters. Therefore a total of 50 minutes of stimulation will be delivered.
|Sham Comparator: 2||
Device: Sham condition
Sham stimulation will be made at the site of active treatment but with only the side edge resting on the scalp. It will be administered as HFL and HFR for 50 minutes but with the coil angled 45-90 degrees away from the skull in a single-wing tilt position. This method produces sound and some somatic sensation (e.g., contraction of scalp muscles) similar to those with active stimulation but with minimal direct brain effects. Participants will be unable to see the stimulating coil and therefore will remain blind to the treatment condition.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe and debilitating psychiatric illness characterized by intrusive unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive or ritualistic actions intended to reduce anxiety (compulsions). OCD is common with lifetime prevalence estimated at 2.5%, equally affecting both genders and all ethnic groups. It is also typically chronic in nature, resulting in substantial impact on quality of life. Functioning can be markedly impaired; it has been estimated that 20% of individuals with OCD should be considered severely affected. Although the pathophysiology is unclear, hyperactivity in the prefrontal orbital cortex has been consistently demonstrated, and normalizes with treatment. A decrease in cortical inhibition has been implicated in OCD utilizing a variety of methods, including paired-pulse TMS.
First-line treatment typically consists of either cognitive-behavioural therapy and/or pharmacotherapy with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's or clomipramine). Ordinarily only modest benefits are obtained with conventional pharmacotherapy, with the majority of patients considered nonresponsive or only partially responsive. The limited success of conventional treatment makes identifying alternative treatments a priority. Although psychosurgery is regarded as a valid alternative for severe and refractory individuals, the potential for serious and irreversible adverse consequences is significant, rendering this a treatment of 'last resort' only. Repetitive TMS appears to represent a safe and effective alternative for severe sufferers.
Repetitive TMS has been shown to be an effective therapeutic tool for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders including MDD and schizophrenia, but investigations into its utility in OCD are very preliminary. In a study of 12 OCD patients single session stimulation of the right lateral prefrontal cortex (20 Hz, 80% motor threshold, for 20 minutes) resulted in a decrease in compulsive urges for eight hours in contrast to the left prefrontal cortex which was associated with more modest response . Sachdev et al randomly assigned 12 individuals to receive right or left dorsolateral prefrontal stimulation (10 Hz,110% resting motor threshold, 15 minutes 5 sessions/week for 2 weeks). Subjects showed significant improvement at two weeks and 1-month follow-up, regardless of lateralit. A randomized controlled trial comparing right prefrontal stimulation to sham treatment in 18 OCD subjects was negative, however low frequency (1 Hz) stimulation was used in contrast to previous reports (110% motor threshold, 20 minutes 3 times/week for 6 weeks). Most recently a small study of 10 individuals with OCD and/or Tourette's syndrome found benefit with low-frequency stimulation of the supplementary motor area (1 Hz, 100% motor threshold, 20 minutes 5 sessions/week for 2 weeks). Notably subjects were treatment-resistant in both this and the Sachdev study. Thus although this limited literature precludes any definitive conclusions, it suggests that rTMS may be of benefit in refractory OCD.
In this study we propose to investigate the effectiveness of rTMS treatment in refractory OCD. Although ideal treatment parameters need to be established, the above literature suggests that high frequency stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is likely to be beneficial. Bilateral stimulation will be used; our previous work has demonstrated this method to be safe and well tolerated. Moreover patients will be assigned in randomized double-blind fashion to receive either active or sham TMS, allowing for more definitive conclusions to be drawn. We also propose to explore whether the induction of CI mediates the therapeutic effects of rTMS on OCD symptoms.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00396552
|Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre|
|Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M4N 3M5|
|Centre for Addiction and Mental Health|
|Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5T 1R8|
|Principal Investigator:||Margaret A Richter, MD||Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre|