A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Atorvastatin in HIV-Positive Patients Not on Antiretroviral Medications With the Specific Aims of Studying the Effects of Atorvastatin on HIV Viral Load and Immune Activation Markers
This study will examine the effects of atorvastatin, a statin (drug that lowers cholesterol) on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). If not treated, HIV infection causes an incurable, progressive deficiency in the immune system that leads to death, usually from disease that takes advantage of weakened immunity. However, previous studies have suggested that if the amount of cholesterol in infected cells is reduced, multiplication of HIV is also reduced. In this study, researchers will examine the HIV viral loads, that is, amount of the virus in the blood. They will evaluate the composition of the strain of the virus that patients carry (HIV genotype), response of the immune system to the virus, and how genes may determine the way in which the drug may or may not work against the strain of virus. Researchers plan to enroll 22 participants, anticipating a study to last 30 weeks for each participant.
Patients ages 18 or older with HIV infection, who are not pregnant or breastfeeding, who do not have a known allergy to atorvastatin use, and who have not had a serious illness or infection that required hospitalization within the 30 days before entering the study may be eligible for this study. They will be assigned to random groups: one that to receive atorvastatin and the other to receive a placebo, which has no effect on cholesterol or ability of the HIV infection to multiply. Patients will remain in their groups and treatments for 8 weeks. At the completion of 8 weeks, no matter the study group, all patients will be required to discontinue all study-related medications for 4 weeks. After that period, the study assignments will be switched, so that those previously taking the placebo will take atorvastatin, and vice versa. The study will proceed for another 8 weeks, followed by a period of stopping study-related medications and patients being observed for 4 weeks. Throughout the study, patients will have regularly scheduled visits at the clinic. At those visits there will be collection of blood samples, assessments of symptoms, physical examinations, and questionnaires to complete. Blood tests may require fasting beforehand, and blood samples will be used in standard tests, including those regarding the liver, kidneys, muscles, blood cells, and pregnancy status. Specialized blood tests will determine viral load, effects of the drug on the immune cells, and genetic influence on the drug's effectiveness. The time spent for procedures during clinic visits...
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
|Official Title:||A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Atorvastatin in HIV Positive Patients Not on Antiretroviral Medications With the Specific Aims of Studying the Effects of Atorvastatin on HIV Viral Load and Immune Activation Markers|
- The primary outcome measure in this study is the effect of lipid lowering agents on HIV-1 RNA levels. [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]
- Secondary outcome measures include effects of lipid lowering agents markers of inflamation. [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]
|Study Start Date:||July 2006|
|Study Completion Date:||June 2008|
|Primary Completion Date:||June 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: A
STATIN 80 mg Atorvastatin daily
80 mg atorvastatin oral daily
Placebo Comparator: B
80 mg atorvastatin oral daily
This protocol is a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial designed to study the effects of the lipid lowering statin, atorvastatin on HIV-1 viremia.
Untreated HIV-1 infection results in an incurable, progressive immunodeficiency and death, usually from opportunistic infections. Combination antiretroviral therapy (ARV) has been successful in suppressing HIV replication and reducing morbidity and mortality. Long term ARV therapy is associated with the development of HIV-1 drug resistance, and significant adverse side effects including metabolic and cardiovascular complications. Prolonged therapy with certain antiretrovirals is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a number of dyslipidemic syndromes, including increased levels of cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides in peripheral blood. New therapeutic strategies to suppress HIV-1 infection are essential.
Previously, in vitro studies suggested that exposure to cholesterol-lowering statins results in decreases in HIV-1 replication. The mechanisms of inhibition remain uncertain, but possibilities include disrupting membrane trafficking or cytoskeletal processes necessary for intracellular transport of viral proteins, or altering cellular activation state necessary for viral gene expression. Initial in vivo studies of the effects of statins on HIV-1 have been largely anecdotal in nature and have yielded conflicting results. Although statin therapy is commonly used in HIV-1 infection, adverse effects from the combination of antiretrovirals and statins are possible. A more thorough understanding of the effects of statins on HIV-1 replication is essential to determine the potential therapeutic effect and to investigate the risks and benefits of this approach in vivo.
We plan to conduct a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial, with a cross over design, to study the effects of atorvastatin in 22 HIV-infected patients not currently taking antiretroviral therapy. Patients will be randomized to receive either placebo or atorvastatin 80mg for 8 weeks. After a 4-week wash out period patients on the atorvastatin arm will crossover to placebo and, vice versa patients in the placebo arm will cross over to atorvastatin for an additional 8 weeks. Upon completion of study medications all patients will be followed for 4 weeks. Each arm will have a minimum of 11 patients each. The primary outcome measure in this study is the effect of lipid lowering agents on HIV-1 RNA levels; additional secondary outcome measures include effects of lipid lowering agents on lipid profile, markers of inflammation and immune activation and investigations of host and viral genetic factors.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00367458
|United States, California|
|Naval Medical Center, San Diego|
|San Diego, California, United States, 92134-5000|
|United States, Maryland|
|National Naval Medical Center|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20889|
|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|