Long Term Follow-up of Patients With Group A Streptococcal Infection Originating From the Genital Tract

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00299663
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 7, 2006
Last Update Posted : January 18, 2012
Information provided by:
Hadassah Medical Organization

Brief Summary:

Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a variety of human infections. It is also an uncommon but serious cause of postpartum infections. In contrast to group B streptococcus (GBS) infection, which causes illness and death in newborns disproportionately more often than it does in mothers, perinatal GAS infection primarily affects mothers . Invasive GAS infection is defined by the isolation of GAS from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood) or by the isolation of GAS from a nonsterile site in the presence of the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome or necrotizing fasciitis. A postpartum case of invasive GAS is defined as isolation of GAS during the postpartum period, in association with a clinical postpartum infection (e.g., endometritis) or from either a sterile site or a wound infection.

Because of the burden and severity of invasive GAS infection, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) hosted a meeting in to formulate guidelines for responding to postpartum and postsurgical GAS infections. However, we could not find any recommendations for long-term follow-up of patients who had GAS infection subsequent to delivery or gynaecological procedures, or further recommendations regarding subsequent delivery or gynaecological invasive procedures. It is possible that women who had GAS as a cause of vaginal infection may have a tendency to be carriers of this organism, but this has never been proven. We believe it is of importance to determine if women who have had one infection may be long-term carriers which may pose a risk during future pregnancies.

The objective of the present study is to evaluate the incidence of long term gynaecological carrier state of patients who had GAS invasive infection following delivery, and to provide guidelines for follow-up and treatment of such patients.

The proposed study may answer the question whether this endogenous GAS origin represents chronic GAS carrier state, similar to the known GBS carrier state. As some of these patients had severe infections (sometimes life threatening) a protocol for long-term follow up and management is necessary in case an invasive procedure is done (IUD insertion, endometrial biopsy, curettage or delivery) in order to prevent recurrent infection. The information collected in the study will enable us to afford recommendations for follow up and prophylaxis in the future.

Condition or disease
Streptococcal Infections

Detailed Description:

Research plan The study population will include patients diagnosed with GAS invasive infection following delivery or gynaecological procedures (such as endometrial biopsy, D&C or IUD insertion) at Hadassah university hospitals, and patients in whom an isolation of GAS from the vagina without infection was reported. The study will consist of two parts, prospective and retrospective.

  1. Retrospective study

    1. The records of all patients diagnosed with GAS infection/isolation in the past 3 years (2003-2005) will be reviewed. The estimated occurrence of GAS isolation from the genital tract in Hadassah hospital is 15 cases every year (Moses personal communication).
    2. Patients' files will be reviewed for demographic and clinical variables associated with the development of GAS infection (age, parity, obstetric history), its clinical course and subsequent progress to septic shock, and the site of GAS isolation (blood, vaginal discharge, wound etc).
    3. Additional information will be obtained from the patients in order to evaluate the incidence of gynaecological infections and risk factors for such infections. These include events of pelvic inflammatory disease, contraceptive methods, subsequent deliveries or D&C (a questionnaire is attached).
    4. Vaginal cultures and pharyngeal swabs will be taken from all women with previous gynecological GAS infection/isolation participating in the study, in order to evaluate whether carriage of GAS in the vagina occurs.
  2. emm typing Since we have the original isolates from women with invasive disease (those presenting with bacteremia) we will be able to compare the specific type isolate obtained in consequent cultures with the original isolate. Isolates will be compared by several known bacterial attributes such as emm type, T type, and the presence of genes for the different exotoxins. emm typing PCR of streptococcal isolates will be performed as previously described [11], according to the recommendations of the Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Streptococcus pyogenes emm sequence database (
  3. Prospective study- In addition to the above patients, women presenting from the beginning of the study for two years, with an isolation of GAS from the vagina (even without overt disease), will be followed in order to evaluate the significance of such isolates. These isolates will be collected for comparison with surveillance cultures which will be taken in the future. Vaginal cultures and pharyngeal swabs will be taken every 2 months during the year.

Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 61 participants
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Official Title: Long Term Follow-up of Patients With Group A Streptococcal Infection Originating From the Genital Tract
Study Start Date : February 2006
Actual Study Completion Date : October 2011

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
The population that participate in the study are women who were udentified with positive culture of group A streptoccoci in the genital tracts, starting from 2003 and on.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients diagnosed with GAS infection/isolation in the past 3 years (2003-2005)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00299663

Hadassah Medical Organization
Jerusalem, Israel
Sponsors and Collaborators
Hadassah Medical Organization
Study Director: ALLON MOSES Hadassah Medical Organization

1. Chuang I, Van Beneden C, Beall B, Schuchat A. Population-based surveillance for postpartum invasive group a streptococcus infections, 1995-2000. Clin Infect Dis. 2002:15;35:665-70. 2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Active bacterial core surveillance (ABCs) report: group A Streptococcus, 2000. 3. The Working Group on Severe Streptococcal Infections. Defining the group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Rationale and consensus definition. JAMA 1993; 269:390 1. 4. Stevens DL, Tanner MH, Winship J, et al. Severe group A streptococcal infections associated with a toxic shock like syndrome and scarlet fever toxin A. N Engl J Med 1989; 321:1 7. 5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Case definitions for infectious conditions under public health surveillance. MMWR Recomm Rep 1997;46(RR-10):1 55. 6. Prevention of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections Workshop Participants .Prevention of invasive group A streptococcal disease among household contacts of case patients and among postpartum and postsurgical patients: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 15;36:243.

Responsible Party: Ahinoam Lev-Sagie, MD, Hadassah Medical Organization Identifier: NCT00299663     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: GAS-HMO-CTIL
First Posted: March 7, 2006    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: January 18, 2012
Last Verified: January 2012

Keywords provided by Hadassah Medical Organization:
group A streptococcal infection
genital tract
patients with GAS isolation
Streptococcus Group A

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Communicable Diseases
Streptococcal Infections
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections