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Safety and Effectiveness of a Vaccine for Prostate Cancer That Uses Each Patients' Own Immune Cells.

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00289341
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 9, 2006
Results First Posted : January 8, 2013
Last Update Posted : January 18, 2013
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Robert Darnell, Rockefeller University

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and activity of a type of vaccine as immune therapy for prostate cancer. This vaccine will be made for each participant's own immune cells (called dendritic cells) obtained by blood donation. Dendritic cells are immune cells, whose role is to identify foreign antigens (bacteria, viruses, or tumor cells, for example) in the body and to activate other cells of the immune system to mount an attack on that foreign antigen. Each participant will be randomized into either Arm 1 (experimental treatment only) or Arm 2 (placebo first, then the experimental treatment). Participants will be given the vaccine and three boosters as an injection. After the placebo phase, each participant in Arm 2 will crossover to the treatment phase so that all participants will eventually receive the experimental treatment.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Prostate Cancer Biological: vaccine vehicle only Biological: DC/LNCaP Phase 1 Phase 2

Detailed Description:
This is a Phase I/II dendritic cell vaccine study for patients with prostate cancer. Our laboratory has demonstrated that effective tumor immunity in humans is associated with, and likely mediated at least in part by tumor antigen-specific killer T cells (Albert et al., 1998a; Darnell, 1999; Darnell and Posner, 2003). Moreover, we have demonstrated that apoptotic material derived from dying tumor cells are a potent means of delivering antigen to DCs and subsequently triggering tumor antigen-specific T cell responses ex vivo (Albert et al., 1998a; Albert et al., 1998c). In this study, patients with 3 consecutive rises in PSA measured at least 2 week apart, after definite local therapy (prostatectomy or radiation) will be recruited. Peripheral blood monocytes will be collected by leukapheresis and dendritic cells will be generated in the Cleanroom in the Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology. These dendritic cells will be pulsed with apoptotic prostate cancer cells from a cell line (LNCaP), harvested, tested for certain release criteria, and then injected as vaccine. When patients are found to be eligible for the study, they will be randomized into either the experimental group or the placebo group for the purposes of comparing adverse events between groups only. Vaccine plus 3 boosters (or placebo) will be given, each two weeks apart. After the third booster, patients will be unblinded. Those receiving the vaccine will when enter the follow up phase which includes a post treatment leukapheresis. Those in the placebo group will cross over and receive the vaccine and boosters. The primary outcomes to be evaluated are toxicity and activity. Patients will be evaluated for both local and systemic toxicity. For activity, we measure both immunological and clinical responses to the vaccine, comparing measures taken before and after vaccination, combining patients in both arms.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 24 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I/II Study of Autologous Dendritic Cells Pulsed With Apoptotic Tumor Cells (DC/LNCaP) Administered Subcutaneously to Prostate Cancer Patients.
Study Start Date : March 2002
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 2008
Actual Study Completion Date : November 2008

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
12 patients in the placebo Arm for 8 weeks followed by DC/LNCAP, DC/LNCaP-M1 and DC/KLH immunizations over 8 weeks.
Biological: vaccine vehicle only
Subcutaneous injection of vaccine vehicle only (5% DMSO in normal saline), followed by cross-over to Arm 1 design.

Experimental: DC/LNCaP
12 patients, receiving DC/LNCaP, DC/LNCaP-M1 and DC/KLH immunizations over 8 weeks
Biological: DC/LNCaP
Subcutaneous injection of DC/LNCaP, DC/LNCaP-M1, DC/KLH

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Adverse Event [ Time Frame: End of blinded phase (wk 9) ]
    Occurrence of adverse events (AE) was compared between the placebo and vaccine groups during the blinded phase (the 1st 9 weeks). At the end of this phase, all were unblinded, and those who received placebo crossed over to now receive vaccine. All serious AEs and any other AEs that occurred 5 times or more are reported. The exact binomial test was used to compare the occurrence of each AE between groups.

  2. Immunogenicity of the DC/LNCaP Vaccine. Pre- vs Post-vaccination Bulk T Cell Proliferation (3H Thymidine Incorporation) by Type of Antigen. The "Number" Indicated is the Median Difference of Post-Pre, of Each Antigen Group. [ Time Frame: pre- vs post-vaccination. Pre-vaccination T cells were collected at Wk 0 and post-vaccination T cells were collected at Wk 13 ]
    The difference between post minus pre-vaccination bulk T cell proliferation was calculated for each antigen.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in PSA Slope, Pre- vs Post-vaccination. [ Time Frame: pre- vs post- vaccination PSA slopes. ]
    To model the evolution of PSA (in log-scale) during the three study phases (pre-vaccine, vaccine, and post-vaccine phases), a mixed linear spline model was used. Two knots (one at the start of the vaccine phase and the other at the start of the post-vaccine phase) were used to directly quantify the differences in slopes between each phase. To account for the heterogeneous treatment effect and the repeated measures structure, random effects are incorporated into the model. For the general model, random effects for the intercept, slope and the first knot were considered.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

Disease Characteristics

  • Histologically confirmed prostate carcinoma
  • Progressive, disease required, i.e.: elevated PSA documented to be rising on 3 occasions, either despite castrate testosterone levels (below 50 ng/dl), or after definitive local therapy (prostatectomy or radiation).

Prior/Concurrent Therapy

-Biologic therapy:

  • Recovered from toxicity of any prior therapy


  • At least 4 weeks since chemotherapy -Endocrine evaluation/therapy
  • 3 rising PSA values at least 2 weeks apart
  • At least 2 weeks since concurrent corticosteroids (other than for replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency)
  • Medical hormonal therapy to maintain castrate testosterone levels permitted


  • At least 4 weeks since radiotherapy


  • Prior surgery allowed

Patient Characteristics

  • Age: 18 and over, able to give written informed consent. Individuals unable to provide informed consent must have consent provided by the legal guardian, or person designated by the subject to give consent on his behalf.
  • Performance status: Karnofsky 70-100%
  • Life expectancy: At least 1 year
  • Hematopoietic: obtained twice, once within 45 days prior to study entry, and again within 72 hours of study entry.
  • WBC greater than 3,800
  • Absolute neutrophils greater than 1,500
  • Absolute lymphocytes greater than 500
  • Platelets greater than 120,000
  • Hb at least 10 g/dl
  • Hepatic:

    --Bilirubin less than 2.0 mg/dl OR

    --SGOT less than 2 x ULN

  • Renal:

    • Creatinine no greater than 2.0 mg/dl OR
    • Creatinine clearance at least 40 ml/min
  • Rheumatologic:

    --ANA no greater than upper limit of normal, or ANA abnormal in absence of clinical signs of autoimmunity.

    • Rheumatoid factor (RF) no greater than upper limit of normal, or RF abnormal in absence of clinical signs of autoimmunity.
    • Anti-ds DNA no greater than upper limit of normal, or anti ds DNA abnormal in absence of clinical signs of autoimmunity.
  • Immunologic:
  • Influenza serology (assessment made at time of screening).
  • Assessment of DTH response to a standard anergy panel (to include candida, trichophyton and tetanus) or to a Multitest CMI (a disposable kit for DTH testing with standardized preloaded antigens).
  • Endocrine:

    --TSH, T3, and T4 no greater than upper limit of normal

  • Radiographic:

    • Baseline bone scan
    • Baseline CT or MRI of abdomen and pelvis

Exclusion Criteria:

Disease Characteristics -No active CNS metastases

Prior/Concurrent Therapy

  • Biologic therapy:

    • No prior autologous or allogeneic tumor vaccines
    • No concurrent other immunotherapy
  • Chemotherapy

    --Not previously treated with more than 2 chemotherapy regimens

    • No concurrent chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy --No concurrent radiotherapy

Patient Characteristics -Cardiovascular: No NYHA class III/IV status No active angina, clinically significant cardiac arrythmia, recent (6 months) myocardial infarction

  • Pulmonary:

    --No severe debilitating pulmonary disease

  • Other:

    • No active infection requiring antibiotics
    • No active pain requiring chronic opioid analgesics.
    • Not HIV, hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus positive; anti-HIV, HbsAg and Hep C antibody negative
    • No history of hypersensitivity to vaccine components
    • No serious uncontrolled medical illness
    • No currently active second malignancy other than non-melanoma skin cancer (note: a patient is NOT considered to have currently active malignancy if they have completed therapy and are now considered by their physician to be at less than 30% risk for relapse)
    • No history of total lymph node irradiation
    • No history of vasculitis, including but not limited to systemic necrotizing vasculitides (polyarteritis nodosa group), hypersensitivity vasculitis, Wegener's granulomatosis.
    • No history of autoimmune disease.
    • No use of hydroxyurea within 45 days of study entry
    • No receipt of immune modulators or suppressors within 30 days prior to study entry, including but not limited to interferons and thalidomide. No active requirement for corticosteroids; prior use is acceptable.
    • No psychiatric illness or social condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, would interfere with adherence to study requirements.
    • No alcohol or drug use or dependence that, in the opinion of the investigator, would interfere with adherence to study requirements.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00289341

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United States, New York
Rockefeller University Hospital
New York, New York, United States, 10021
Sponsors and Collaborators
Rockefeller University
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Principal Investigator: Robert B. Darnell, MD, PHD Rockefeller University
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Robert Darnell, Principal Investigator, Rockefeller University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00289341    
Other Study ID Numbers: RDA 0466
First Posted: February 9, 2006    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: January 8, 2013
Last Update Posted: January 18, 2013
Last Verified: January 2013
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Prostatic Neoplasms
Genital Neoplasms, Male
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Genital Diseases, Male
Genital Diseases
Urogenital Diseases
Prostatic Diseases
Male Urogenital Diseases