Drug Treatment Combined With Drug and Risk Reduction Counseling to Prevent of HIV Infection and Death Among Injection Drug Users
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||A Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Drug Treatment in Prevention of HIV Infection and Death Among Opiate Dependent Injectors|
- Evidence of HIV-1 Infection or Death for Visits up to 104 Weeks [ Time Frame: For visits up to week 104 ]The primary endpoint for the study was cumulative HIV infection or death after a second year of follow-up (i.e. at week 104), one year after completion of the treatment phase, designed to test a durable intervention effect.
- Number of Participants With Urinalysis Results Positive for Opiates [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 104 ]Urine drug screen were assessed monthly and semiannually.
- Self-report of Continued Injection Opiate Use in the Last 30 Days [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 104 ]All participants completed interviewer-administered assessments of injection and non-injection drug use at baseline and at semi-annual visits.
- Number of Participants Reported Using Injection Equipment (Needles, Syringes, Cookers, Cottons, and Rinse Water) in the Prior 6 Months [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 104 ]
- Self-reported Number of Injections in the Last Month [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 104 ]
- Incident Hepatitis C Infections for Thailand and China [ Time Frame: Measured through week 156 in Thailand and 104 weeks in China ]
HCV antibody using two different HCV EIA assays (Ortho HCV antibody version 3.0 and Wantai HCV antibody assay) at baseline and between 26-156 weeks later.
If both HCV EIA antibody assays were nonreactive, then the participant was considered not to be HCV infected. If either assay was reactive, then the Ortho HCV assay was repeated in duplicate. If two of 3 Ortho HCV assays were reactive, then the participant was considered to be HCV infected. Samples that were repeatedly reactive for HCV antibody at a follow-up visit were tested for HCV RNA by the Roche COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® HCV assay. Not all participants had follow-up testing performed in China due to early closure of the study by the Data Safety Monitoring Board on account of futility due to a low HIV incidence (the primary study endpoint).
Analysis was done separately for both countries
- Incident Hepatitis B Infections [ Time Frame: Measured through week 52 ]Serum samples were tested at baseline and between 26-52 weeks later for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Abbott Murex HBsAg version 3.0). If the HBsAg test was initially non-reactive, then the participant was considered to be negative for HBsAg. If the HBsAg test was initially reactive, then it was repeated in duplicate. If at least two of 3 tests were reactive, then the participant was considered to be positive for HBsAg.
|Study Start Date:||May 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||July 2012|
|Primary Completion Date:||July 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Long term medication assisted treatment (LT-MAT)
Participants will receive BUP/NX under the tongue daily for a maximum of three weeks(until dose stabilization) and then three times a week for 52 weeks in addition to weekly drug and risk reduction counseling for 12 weeks, and then every 4 weeks through Week 52
Other Name: BUP/NX
Experimental: Short term medication assisted treatment (ST-MAT)
Participants will receive short-term BUP/NX; dosage and length of treatment will be determined by the investigator.Additionally, participants will undergo weekly drug and risk reduction counseling for 12 weeks, and then every 4 weeks through Week 52.
Other Name: BUP/NX
Effective HIV prevention among injection drug users (IDUs) requires educating the at-risk population about HIV transmission and risky behavior, and providing the means for behavior change. Current treatment for opiate dependence focuses on reducing the frequency of drug use. BUP/NX is a combination pill currently used to treat opiate-dependent individuals. This trial will evaluate the effectiveness of two therapies in preventing HIV transmission among IDUs. Drug and risk reduction counseling combined with either long term medication assisted treatment (LT-MAT) with BUP/NX or short term medication assisted treatment (ST-MAT) with BUP/NX will be compared in preventing the transmission of HIV among opiate-dependent individuals.
This study will last 4.5 years. Participants in this study will be randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Group 1 will receive LT-MAT with BUP/NX. Group 2 will receive ST-MAT with BUP/NX. An initial 4-week safety and feasibility phase will involve the first 50 participants at each site and will last approximately 30 weeks. Study visits will occur every week and will include a physical exam and blood and urine collection.
The main treatment phase of the study will last 52 weeks. Participants in Group 1 will receive BUP/NX under the tongue, at first daily and then three times a week for 52 weeks. Participants assigned to Group 1 will take part in a BUP/NX reduction phase, which will occur between Weeks 47 and 52. Participants in Group 2 will receive short-term BUP/NX; dosage and length of treatment will be determined by the investigator. Participants assigned to Group 2 will receive BUP/NX for a maximum of 18 days; detoxification may be repeated at Week 26 if the participant is still injecting opiates. After Week 4 of the safety phase and Weeks 26 and 52 of the overall study, participants will complete an intervention acceptability assessment.
In addition, participants in both groups will attend drug and risk reduction counseling weekly. After the first 12 weeks, participants will return every 4 weeks for 10 more counseling sessions. HIV testing, hepatitis C testing, risk assessment, and urine tests for opiates will occur at screening and at Weeks 26, 52, 78, 104, 130 and 156. Plasma from blood samples will be stored at each of these visits. Hepatitis B testing will occur at Week 26. Participants in China will attend study visits through approximately Week 104, and participants in Thailand will attend study visits through approximately Week 156.
Participants in China who have been incarcerated may participate in an optional substudy, which is examining the withdrawal effects from BUP/NX after incarceration. Participants who agree to take part in the substudy will attend one study visit and will complete a questionnaire.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00270257
|Heng County Ctr. for Disease Control & Prevention CRS|
|Hengzhou Town, Guangxi, China, 530300|
|Guangxi Ctrs. for Disease Control & Prevention and for HIV/AIDS Prevention & Control CRS|
|Nanning, Guangxi, China, 530028|
|Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, 830011|
|CMU HIV Prevention CRS|
|Chiang Mai, Thailand, 50200|
|Study Chair:||David Metzger, PhD||Center for Studies of Addiction, University of Pennsylvania|