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Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral, and Nutrition Study

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00164736
First Posted: September 14, 2005
Last Update Posted: April 23, 2010
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborators:
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi
Information provided by:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  Purpose

This is a comparative clinical trial among HIV-infected women and their infants to determine:

  1. the benefit of nutritional supplementation given to women during breastfeeding
  2. the benefit and safety of antiretroviral (ARV) medications given either to infants or to their mothers to prevent HIV transmission during breastfeeding
  3. the feasibility of exclusive breastfeeding followed by early, rapid breastfeeding cessation

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections Drug: Maternal zidovudine/lamivudine/lopinavir-ritonavir Drug: Infant nevirapine Dietary Supplement: Maternal protein and calorie supplement Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: HIV Infection and Breastfeeding: Interventions for Maternal and Infant Health

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Postpartum weight loss between delivery and 28 weeks [ Time Frame: between delivery and 28 weeks ]
  • Infant HIV status at 28 weeks. (Infants found to have HIV at birth or 2 weeks after delivery will have been disenrolled.) [ Time Frame: birth to 28 weeks ]
  • Exclusive breastfeeding and breastfeeding cessation by 28 weeks [ Time Frame: birth to 28 weeks ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Duration of exclusive breastfeeding [ Time Frame: birth to 28 weeks ]
  • Infant HIV status through 48 weeks [ Time Frame: birth to 48 weeks ]
  • Maternal adherence to ARV, maternal CD4 count, and clinical assessment of opportunistic infection status through 48 weeks [ Time Frame: delivery to 48 weeks ]

Enrollment: 2369
Study Start Date: March 2004
Study Completion Date: January 2010
Primary Completion Date: January 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Maternal ARVs & Nutrition Supplement
Extended maternal ARVs for prophylaxis (for the infant) & daily nutritional supplement given to the mother
Drug: Maternal zidovudine/lamivudine/lopinavir-ritonavir
Total daily dose: zidovudine 600mg, lamivudine 300mg, (taken as Combivir 1 tab twice a day with food). Lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100mg (taken as 2 tabs twice a day). Commencing after delivery and through to 28 weeks.
Other Names:
  • Combivir tabs (zidovudine 300mg and lamivudine 150mg)
  • Aluvia tabs (lopinavir 200mg /ritonavir 50mg)
Dietary Supplement: Maternal protein and calorie supplement
High energy, nutrient-dense, micronutrient fortified nutritional supplement. Daily: Energy 700kcal, Protein 20g, 100% of recommended dietary allowance for all micronutrients during the 6 months of lactation. Vitamin A is excluded.
Other Name: Produced by Nutriset. Daily dose: 2 sachets.
Active Comparator: Infant NVP & Nutrition Supplement
Extended infant nevirapine for prophylaxis & daily nutritional supplment given to the mother
Drug: Infant nevirapine

Nevirapine suspension once daily dose. 0-14days: 10mg; 3-18weeks: 20mg; 19-28weeks: 30mg.

To 28 weeks while breastfeeding.

Other Name: Viramune (Nevirapine) suspension 50mg/5ml
Dietary Supplement: Maternal protein and calorie supplement
High energy, nutrient-dense, micronutrient fortified nutritional supplement. Daily: Energy 700kcal, Protein 20g, 100% of recommended dietary allowance for all micronutrients during the 6 months of lactation. Vitamin A is excluded.
Other Name: Produced by Nutriset. Daily dose: 2 sachets.
Active Comparator: Maternal ARVs & No Nutrition Supplement
Extended maternal ARVs for prophylaxis (for the infant) & no nutritional supplement given to the mother
Drug: Maternal zidovudine/lamivudine/lopinavir-ritonavir
Total daily dose: zidovudine 600mg, lamivudine 300mg, (taken as Combivir 1 tab twice a day with food). Lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100mg (taken as 2 tabs twice a day). Commencing after delivery and through to 28 weeks.
Other Names:
  • Combivir tabs (zidovudine 300mg and lamivudine 150mg)
  • Aluvia tabs (lopinavir 200mg /ritonavir 50mg)
Active Comparator: Infant NVP & No Nutrition Supplement
Extended infant nevirapine for prophylaxis & no nutritional supplment given to the mother
Drug: Infant nevirapine

Nevirapine suspension once daily dose. 0-14days: 10mg; 3-18weeks: 20mg; 19-28weeks: 30mg.

To 28 weeks while breastfeeding.

Other Name: Viramune (Nevirapine) suspension 50mg/5ml
Active Comparator: No Drugs & Nutrition Supplement

No extended maternal ARV prophylaxis nor infant nevirapine prophylaxis & daily nutritional supplement given to the mother.

Note: As of March 2008, the third arm of the antiretroviral intervention, in which neither mother nor infant received drugs beyond enhanced standard of care, was stopped based on recommendations of a Data and Safety Monitoring Board review of interim efficacy results and safety data after 77% participants had received treatment assignment.

Dietary Supplement: Maternal protein and calorie supplement
High energy, nutrient-dense, micronutrient fortified nutritional supplement. Daily: Energy 700kcal, Protein 20g, 100% of recommended dietary allowance for all micronutrients during the 6 months of lactation. Vitamin A is excluded.
Other Name: Produced by Nutriset. Daily dose: 2 sachets.
No Intervention: No Drugs & No Nutrition Supplement

No extended maternal ARV prophylaxis nor infant nevirapine prophylaxis & no nutritional supplement given to the mother.

Note: As of March 2008, the third arm of the antiretroviral intervention, in which neither mother nor infant received drugs beyond enhanced standard of care, was stopped based on recommendations of a Data and Safety Monitoring Board review of interim efficacy results and safety data after 77% participants had received treatment assignment.


Detailed Description:

This study addresses the complex issues of HIV related maternal morbidity, mortality, and postnatal HIV transmission during breastfeeding and weaning in resource-poor countries. Objectives include assessment of mortality and morbidity among HIV-infected women; evaluation of interventions to reduce HIV transmission to infants exposed by breast milk; and assessment of early weaning as a risk-reduction strategy for infants of HIV-infected mothers.

The study will evaluate the following:

  1. The efficacy of a high-density caloric/micronutrient nutritional supplement given to HIV-infected women who breastfeed in preventing maternal depletion (weight loss and micronutrient status).
  2. The safety and efficacy of maternal or infant antiretroviral regimens, taken for up to 6 months during breastfeeding, in reducing infant HIV infection rates at 48 weeks.
  3. The feasibility of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months followed by rapid weaning.

Additional study objectives are to evaluate the feasibility of delivering these interventions in resource poor settings and to identify maternal, infant, and virologic factors associated with HIV transmission during breastfeeding.

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   14 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Recruitment and primary eligibility criteria:

  • Age > 14 years.
  • Ability to give informed assent or consent.
  • Evidence of HIV infection, as documented by 2 positive ELISA antibody tests; or 1 positive ELISA, and 1 Western Blot; or 2 separate concurrent rapid tests.
  • Currently pregnant (with a single or multiple fetuses).
  • Gestation < 30 weeks at referral from 'Call to Action' Program
  • No serious current complications of pregnancy.
  • Intention to breastfeed.
  • Intention to deliver at the institution at which the study is based.
  • Not previously enrolled in this study for an earlier pregnancy.
  • Other than HIV, no active serious infection, such as tuberculosis or other potentially serious illnesses.
  • No previous use of antiretrovirals including the HIVNET 012 regimen.
  • Mother's CD4 count > 250 cells/uL determined in the antenatal clinic.
  • Mother's ALT < 2.5 x ULN (upper limit of normal) determined in the antenatal clinic

Secondary eligibility criteria and treatment assignment:

  • Mother who delivers outside of the institution at which the study is based must present with her infant to the study site within 36 hours of delivery.
  • Mother accepts nevirapine and zidovudine+lamivudine 7-day regimen for herself and her infant.
  • Infant birth weight > 2000 g.
  • No severe congenital malformations or other condition(s) not compatible with life.
  • Based on clinical assessment, no maternal condition which would preclude the start of the study intervention.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00164736


Locations
Malawi
Kamuzu Central Hospital, Bottom Hospital
Lilongwe, Malawi
Sponsors and Collaborators
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi
Investigators
Study Chair: Charles van der Horst, MD University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Principal Investigator: Denise J Jamieson, MD, MPH CDC, Atlanta, GA
Principal Investigator: Peter Kazembe, MB ChB Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Flax VL, Adair LS, Allen LH, Shahab-Ferdows S, Hampel D, Chasela CS, Tegha G, Daza EJ, Corbett A, Davis NL, Kamwendo D, Kourtis AP, van der Horst CM, Jamieson DJ, Bentley ME; BAN Study Team. Plasma Micronutrient Concentrations Are Altered by Antiretroviral Therapy and Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements in Lactating HIV-Infected Malawian Women. J Nutr. 2015 Aug;145(8):1950-7. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.212290. Epub 2015 Jul 8.
Widen EM, Bentley ME, Chasela CS, Kayira D, Flax VL, Kourtis AP, Ellington SR, Kacheche Z, Tegha G, Jamieson DJ, van der Horst CM, Allen LH, Shahab-Ferdows S, Adair LS; BAN Study Team. Antiretroviral Treatment Is Associated With Iron Deficiency in HIV-Infected Malawian Women That Is Mitigated With Supplementation, but Is Not Associated With Infant Iron Deficiency During 24 Weeks of Exclusive Breastfeeding. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Jul 1;69(3):319-28. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000588. Erratum in: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Aug 15;69(5):e184.
Flax VL, Bentley ME, Combs GF Jr, Chasela CS, Kayira D, Tegha G, Kamwendo D, Daza EJ, Fokar A, Kourtis AP, Jamieson DJ, van der Horst CM, Adair LS. Plasma and breast-milk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers are positively associated with infant selenium status but are not associated with maternal supplementation: results of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr;99(4):950-6. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.073833. Epub 2014 Feb 5.
Widen EM, Bentley ME, Kayira D, Chasela CS, Daza EJ, Kacheche ZK, Tegha G, Jamieson DJ, Kourtis AP, van der Horst CM, Allen LH, Shahab-Ferdows S, Adair LS; BAN Study Team. Changes in soluble transferrin receptor and hemoglobin concentrations in Malawian mothers are associated with those values in their exclusively breastfed, HIV-exposed infants. J Nutr. 2014 Mar;144(3):367-74. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.177915. Epub 2013 Dec 31.
Widen EM, Bentley ME, Kayira D, Chasela CS, Jamieson DJ, Tembo M, Soko A, Kourtis AP, Flax VL, Ellington SR, van der Horst CM, Adair LS; BAN Study team. Maternal weight loss during exclusive breastfeeding is associated with reduced weight and length gain in daughters of HIV-infected Malawian women. J Nutr. 2013 Jul;143(7):1168-75. doi: 10.3945/jn.112.171751. Epub 2013 May 22.
Flax VL, Bentley ME, Chasela CS, Kayira D, Hudgens MG, Kacheche KZ, Chavula C, Kourtis AP, Jamieson DJ, van der Horst CM, Adair LS. Lipid-based nutrient supplements are feasible as a breastmilk replacement for HIV-exposed infants from 24 to 48 weeks of age. J Nutr. 2013 May;143(5):701-7. doi: 10.3945/jn.112.168245. Epub 2013 Mar 6.
Flax VL, Bentley ME, Chasela CS, Kayira D, Hudgens MG, Knight RJ, Soko A, Jamieson DJ, van der Horst CM, Adair LS. Use of lipid-based nutrient supplements by HIV-infected Malawian women during lactation has no effect on infant growth from 0 to 24 weeks. J Nutr. 2012 Jul;142(7):1350-6. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.155598. Epub 2012 May 30.
Jamieson DJ, Chasela CS, Hudgens MG, King CC, Kourtis AP, Kayira D, Hosseinipour MC, Kamwendo DD, Ellington SR, Wiener JB, Fiscus SA, Tegha G, Mofolo IA, Sichali DS, Adair LS, Knight RJ, Martinson F, Kacheche Z, Soko A, Hoffman I, van der Horst C; BAN study team. Maternal and infant antiretroviral regimens to prevent postnatal HIV-1 transmission: 48-week follow-up of the BAN randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012 Jun 30;379(9835):2449-58. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60321-3. Epub 2012 Apr 26.
Chasela CS, Hudgens MG, Jamieson DJ, Kayira D, Hosseinipour MC, Kourtis AP, Martinson F, Tegha G, Knight RJ, Ahmed YI, Kamwendo DD, Hoffman IF, Ellington SR, Kacheche Z, Soko A, Wiener JB, Fiscus SA, Kazembe P, Mofolo IA, Chigwenembe M, Sichali DS, van der Horst CM; BAN Study Group. Maternal or infant antiretroviral drugs to reduce HIV-1 transmission. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 17;362(24):2271-81. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0911486.

Responsible Party: Dr. Denise Jamieson, CDC
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00164736     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CDC-NCCDPHP-3946
U48CCU409660 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention )
PA 04003 SIP 26-04 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention )
First Submitted: September 13, 2005
First Posted: September 14, 2005
Last Update Posted: April 23, 2010
Last Verified: April 2010

Keywords provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
HIV
Clinical trial
breastfeeding
mother-to-child-transmission
nutrition
HIV Seronegativity

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Infection
HIV Infections
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Slow Virus Diseases
Ritonavir
Lopinavir
Lamivudine
Zidovudine
Nevirapine
Lamivudine, zidovudine drug combination
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-HIV Agents
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors


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