We're building a better ClinicalTrials.gov. Check it out and tell us what you think!
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Safety and Efficacy Study of Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution (AZLI) in Cystic Fibrosis Patients With P. Aeruginosa (AIR-CF2)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00104520
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 2, 2005
Results First Posted : March 11, 2011
Last Update Posted : March 11, 2011
Information provided by:
Gilead Sciences

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and lung infection due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA).

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Cystic Fibrosis Drug: AZLI 75 mg two times a day (BID)/three times a day (TID) Drug: Placebo two times a day (BID)/three times a day (TID) Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Patients with CF often have lung infections that occur repeatedly or worsen over time. The lung infections are often caused by a bacteria called PA. Treatment with antibiotics can stop or slow down the growth of the bacteria. The antibiotics may be given by mouth, intravenously (IV), or by inhalation as a mist. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI), an investigational formulation of the antibiotic administered using the eFlow® Electronic Nebulizer by PARI GmbH, in CF patients with PA.

In this study, participants were screened for eligibility at Visit 1 (Day -42) and returned to the center for Visit 2 after a 14-day evaluation period. At Visit 2 (Day -28), participants began a 28-day course of open-label Tobramycin Inhalation Solution (TIS). At Visit 3 (Day 0), following completion of the 28-day course of TIS, participants began randomized, blinded treatment with either AZLI twice a day (BID) or three times a day (TID) or placebo BID or TID, and continued treatment for a total of 28 days, with a clinic visit at Day 14 (Visit 4) and at the end of treatment (Visit 5 [Day 28]). Participants returned for visits every 2 weeks for 8 weeks after the end of the blinded treatment (Visits 6 to 9 [Days 42 to 84]).

Two hundred and forty-seven participants were treated in the TIS phase of this study. Two hundred and eleven subjects completed the TIS phase and were treated in the placebo-controlled phase with study drug (AZLI or placebo).

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 211 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase 3, Double-Blind, Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial With Aztreonam Lysinate for Inhalation in Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Pulmonary P. Aeruginosa Requiring Frequent Antibiotics (AIR-CF2)
Study Start Date : February 2005
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 2006
Actual Study Completion Date : September 2006

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Cystic Fibrosis

Arm Intervention/treatment
Placebo Comparator: Placebo (pooled two times a day [BID]/three times a day [TID]) Drug: Placebo two times a day (BID)/three times a day (TID)
Experimental: AZLI (pooled two times a day [BID]/three times a day [TID]) Drug: AZLI 75 mg two times a day (BID)/three times a day (TID)

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Time to Need for Inhaled or Intravenous (IV) Antipseudomonal Antibiotics [ Time Frame: Day 0 to Day 84 (end of study) ]
    The primary endpoint was time to need for a course of inhaled or IV antipseudomonal antibiotics with documented physician assessment of need for antibiotics. Antipseudomonal Antibiotic need was documented based on the presence of at least one of the following four symptoms predictive of pulmonary exacerbation: decreased exercise tolerance, increased cough, increased sputum / chest congestion, decreased appetite, or other.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire - Revised (CFQ-R) Respiratory Symptoms Scale (RSS) Score [ Time Frame: Day 0 to Day 28 ]
    The CFQ-R was administered at Day -28, baseline, Day 14, Day 28, and Day 84 (end of study). The endpoint was change in respiratory symptoms from baseline, assessed with the CFQ-R RSS (range of scores [units]: 0-100; higher scores indicate fewer symptoms).

  2. Percent Change in Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1) (L) [ Time Frame: Day 0 to Day 28 ]

    Spirometry was performed at each visit. FEV1 was recorded according to American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines.

    FEV1(L) is the measurement of the volume of air (expressed in liters) exhaled in 1 second.

    The percent change in this parameter from Day 0 to Day 28 was determined for each treatment group.

  3. Number of Hospitalization Days [ Time Frame: Day 0 to Day 84 ]
    Details of all hospitalizations, including the dates of admission and discharge, were recorded on the electronic case report form (eCRF).

  4. Change From Baseline in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (PA) Log10 Colony Forming Units (CFU) Per Gram of Sputum [ Time Frame: Day 0 to Day 28 ]
    Sputum samples were collected at all participant visits of the study for analysis of microbiology endpoints. Sputum samples were processed for qualitative and quantitative culture of PA (each morphotype). Due to the skewness of the distribution of CFU data, the data were transformed using the base 10 logarithm, in an attempt to normalize the data and allow for parametric tests, before calculating changes. To account for zero values, 1 was added to each CFU measurement before being transformed. Any CFU data values where PA was not isolated from a valid culture were set to zero.

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Number of Participants With Other Pathogens [ Time Frame: Day 0 and Day 28 ]

    Sputum samples were collected at all visits for quantitative and qualitative culture for Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Achromobacter xylosoxidans.

    Number of participants with other pathogens at baseline and at the end of treatment (28 days) are reported.

  2. Minimum Concentration of Aztreonam Inhibiting 50% (MIC50) and 90% (MIC90) of All PA Isolates (μg/mL) [ Time Frame: Day 0 to Day 28 ]

    The aztreonam susceptibility of PA isolates from sputum samples (collected at all visits) was assessed.

    MIC50 = minimum inhibitory concentration (minimum concentration of an agent that inhibits 50% of isolates from a particular organism).

    MIC90 = minimum inhibitory concentration (minimum concentration of an agent that inhibits 90% of isolates from a particular organism).

    MIC50 and MIC90 values are single measurements for the entire population and not measured on a per-participant basis.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   6 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • CF as diagnosed by:

    1. Documented sweat chloride greater than or equal to 60 mEq/L by quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis test; or
    2. Two well-characterized genetic mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene; or
    3. Abnormal nasal potential difference with accompanying symptoms characteristic of CF.
  • PA present in expectorated sputum or throat swab culture at Screening.
  • Participants must have received three or more courses of TIS within the previous 12 months.
  • Participants on chronic azithromycin must have had no change in regimen in the previous 3 months and must have had a need for TIS and/or additional antipseudomonal therapy since initiation of azithromycin.
  • Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) between (and including) 25% and 75% predicted at Screening.
  • Ability to perform reproducible pulmonary function tests.
  • Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) greater than or equal to 90% on room air at Screening.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Current use of oral corticosteroids in doses exceeding the equivalent of 10 mg prednisone a day or 20 mg prednisone every other day.
  • History of sputum or throat culture swab yielding Burkholderia cepacia in the past 2 years.
  • History of daily continuous oxygen supplementation or requirement for more than 2 liters/minute at night.
  • Administration of any investigational drug or device within 28 days of Screening (Visit 1) or within 6 half-lives of the investigational drug (whichever was longer).
  • Known local or systemic hypersensitivity to monobactam antibiotics.
  • Inability to tolerate inhalation of a short acting Beta-2 agonist.
  • Changes in antimicrobial, bronchodilator, anti-inflammatory, or corticosteroid medications within 7 days before Screening or between Screening and the next visit.
  • Changes in physiotherapy technique or schedule within 7 days before Screening or between Screening and the next visit.
  • History of lung transplantation.
  • A chest X-ray indicating abnormal findings at Screening or within the previous 90 days.
  • Abnormal renal or hepatic function or serum chemistry at Screening (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT] greater than 5 times the upper limit of normal range; Creatinine greater than 2 times the upper limit of normal range).
  • Positive pregnancy test at Screening.
  • Female of childbearing potential who was lactating or in the opinion of the investigator was not practicing acceptable birth control.
  • Any serious or active medical or psychiatric illness, which in the opinion of the investigator would have interfered with participant treatment, assessment, or compliance with the protocol.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00104520

Show Show 56 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Gilead Sciences
Layout table for investigator information
Principal Investigator: Karen McCoy, MD Nationwide Children's Hospital
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Mark Bresnik, MD, Director, Clinical Research, Gilead Sciences, Inc.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00104520    
Other Study ID Numbers: CP-AI-005
First Posted: March 2, 2005    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: March 11, 2011
Last Update Posted: March 11, 2011
Last Verified: September 2010
Keywords provided by Gilead Sciences:
Cystic Fibrosis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pulmonary Cystic Fibrosis
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Cystic Fibrosis
Pathologic Processes
Pancreatic Diseases
Digestive System Diseases
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Genetic Diseases, Inborn
Infant, Newborn, Diseases