ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Anti-HIV Drugs for Treating Infants Who Acquired HIV Infection at Birth

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00102960
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 7, 2005
Results First Posted : November 30, 2018
Last Update Posted : November 30, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of anti-HIV drug courses of different lengths in infants who became HIV infected at birth.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
HIV Infections Drug: Abacavir sulfate Drug: Didanosine Drug: Efavirenz Drug: Lamivudine Drug: Lopinavir/Ritonavir Drug: Nevirapine Drug: Zidovudine Phase 3

Detailed Description:

In South Africa, an estimated 250,000 infants are born to HIV-infected mothers each year. A high percentage of perinatal HIV infections are due to inadequate or absent mother-to-child transmission prophylaxis. Unfortunately, even with optimal prophylaxis, relatively large numbers of HIV-infected infants will continue to be born and will require antiretroviral therapy (ART). Determining the appropriate times for initiating and interrupting treatment to benefit long-term prognosis in infants is a significant health challenge. Evidence suggests that starting ART early during acute infection will provide long-term benefits. However, longer duration of treatment increases the chance of developing drug-resistant virus, and continuous therapy begun early leads to long-term complications in children. This study will evaluate the efficacy of two different short-course ART strategies in HIV-infected infants from South Africa.

This study will last at least 3.5 years. There are two parts to this study. In Part A, infants with a baseline CD4 percentage (CD4%) of at least 25% and HIV infection diagnosed between 6 and 12 weeks of age will be randomly assigned to one of two treatment strategy arms. Arm 2 infants will receive ART for approximately 40 weeks until their first birthday. Arm 3 infants will receive ART for approximately 96 weeks until their second birthday. Treatment in both arms of Part A will begin with first-line, continuous treatment of zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. Those who were initially deferred treatment in Arm 1 will be reassessed for initiation of first-line, continuous ART.

First-line ART will be started in Arm 1 or restarted after interruption in Arms 2 and 3 if the appropriate criteria as defined in the protocol is met. First-line treatment of zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir/ritonavir will continue until infants reach a study endpoint; when this occurs, infants will then change to second-line therapy. Second-line ART will consist of didanosine, abacavir sulfate, nevirapine and efavirenz.

All the primary efficacy analysis for this study will focus on the children enrolled in the first phase of Part A (n=377) as proposed by the data safety and monitoring board.

Follow-up visits will take place for 3.5 to 5 years, depending on time of enrollment. All infants will receive routine immunizations and cotrimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim) prophylaxis from age 6 weeks until Week 40. Study visits will occur at study entry, Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 32, 40, and 48; and every 12 weeks thereafter. At these visits, infants will have vital sign measurements, a physical exam, and a medical history evaluation. Blood and urine collection will occur at all study visits. Infants' parents or guardians will also be asked to complete an adherence questionnaire.

Participants enrolled in CIPRA-ZA Project 2 are encouraged to enroll in an observational substudy organized by the Wistar Institute (Dr. Luis Montaner, Principal Investigator), in conjunction with the CIPRA team. This study is entitled,"Pediatric Immune Correlates of Early Anti-HIV Therapy." The goal of this 5-year substudy is to evaluate 120 HIV infected children from the parent study twice a year and compare them to HIV uninfected age-matched controls. Children will be evaluated by (a) characterization and identification of the innate and adaptive immune reconstitution outcomes of early (9 or 21 months) therapy in infants infected with HIV at birth and (b) identification of immune correlate outcomes to clinical progression within a period of 2 to 3 years of follow-up after stopping therapy.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 377 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: This study had two parts: Part A where children were enrolled with CD4% ≥ 25% and Part B where children were enrolled with CD4% < 25%. Part A had three arms: ART-Deferred, ART-40W and ART-96W where ART-40W and ART-96W were the early therapy arms for 40 and 96 weeks respectively. Part B were enrolled into two Arms: ART-40W and ART-96W. The primary efficacy analysis for CHER was based on 377 children that were enrolled in Part A in the first phase of the study. The NIH African data safety and monitoring board recommended that primary analysis be focussed on 377 children enrolled in the first phase of Part A. Additionally, all the key manuscripts have been analysed using this group. Hence all the results presented in clinicaltrials.gov will be specific to this group with three arms.
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase III, Randomized, Open-Label Trial to Evaluate Strategies for Providing Antiretroviral Therapy to Infants Shortly After Primary Infection in a Resource Poor Setting
Study Start Date : July 2005
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 2012
Actual Study Completion Date : January 2013

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Deferred therapy Arm

Zidovudine: First Line Regimen: Given twice daily at a dose of 240 mg/m^2 of body surface area. Dose was adjusted by age as the children grew older.

Lamivudine: First Line Regimen: 4 mg/kg taken orally twice daily Lopinavir/Ritonavir: First Line Regimen: taken orally twice daily. Dosage depends on age and weight.

Ritonavir: First Line Regimen taken orally twice a day. Started at 250 mg/m^2 Abacavir sulfate: Second Line Regimen: 8 mg/kg taken orally twice daily. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.

Didanosine: Second Line Regimen: Either 100 mg/m^2 or 120 mg/m^2 taken orally twice daily. Dosage depends on age.

Efavirenz: Second Line, once daily Nevirapine: Second Line, once daily

Drug: Abacavir sulfate
Second Line Regimen: 8 mg/kg taken orally twice daily. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.
Other Names:
  • ABC
  • Ziagen

Drug: Didanosine
Second Line Regimen: Either 100 mg/m^2 or 120 mg/m^2 taken orally twice daily. Dosage depends on age. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.
Other Names:
  • ddI
  • Videx

Drug: Efavirenz
Second Line Regimen: taken orally once daily. Dosage depends on weight. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.
Other Names:
  • EFV
  • Stocrin

Drug: Lamivudine
First Line Regimen: 4 mg/kg taken orally twice daily
Other Names:
  • 3TC
  • Epivir

Drug: Lopinavir/Ritonavir
First Line Regimen: taken orally twice daily. Dosage depends on age and weight.
Other Names:
  • LPV/r
  • Kaletra

Drug: Nevirapine
Second Line Regimen: 150 - 200 mg/m^2 taken orally twice daily. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.
Other Names:
  • NVP
  • Viramune

Drug: Zidovudine
First Line Regimen: 240 mg/m^2 taken orally twice daily
Other Names:
  • AZT
  • Retrovir

Experimental: Early therapy for 40 weeks

Zidovudine: First Line Regimen: 10 mg/mL taken orally twice per day. Dose was adjusted by age as the children grew older.

Lamivudine: First Line Regimen: 4 mg/kg taken orally twice daily Lopinavir/Ritonavir: First Line Regimen: taken orally twice daily. Dosage depends on age and weight.

Ritonavir: First Line Regimen taken orally twice a day. Started at 250 mg/m^2

Abacavir sulfate: Second Line Regimen: 8 mg/kg taken orally twice daily. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.

Didanosine: Second Line Regimen: Either 100 mg/m^2 or 120 mg/m^2 taken orally twice daily. Dosage depends on age.

Efavirenz: Second Line, once daily Nevirapine: Second Line, once daily

Drug: Abacavir sulfate
Second Line Regimen: 8 mg/kg taken orally twice daily. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.
Other Names:
  • ABC
  • Ziagen

Drug: Didanosine
Second Line Regimen: Either 100 mg/m^2 or 120 mg/m^2 taken orally twice daily. Dosage depends on age. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.
Other Names:
  • ddI
  • Videx

Drug: Efavirenz
Second Line Regimen: taken orally once daily. Dosage depends on weight. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.
Other Names:
  • EFV
  • Stocrin

Drug: Lamivudine
First Line Regimen: 4 mg/kg taken orally twice daily
Other Names:
  • 3TC
  • Epivir

Drug: Lopinavir/Ritonavir
First Line Regimen: taken orally twice daily. Dosage depends on age and weight.
Other Names:
  • LPV/r
  • Kaletra

Drug: Nevirapine
Second Line Regimen: 150 - 200 mg/m^2 taken orally twice daily. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.
Other Names:
  • NVP
  • Viramune

Drug: Zidovudine
First Line Regimen: 240 mg/m^2 taken orally twice daily
Other Names:
  • AZT
  • Retrovir

Experimental: Early therapy for 96 weeks

Zidovudine: First Line Regimen: 10 mg/mL taken orally twice per day. Dose was adjusted by age as the children grew older.

Lamivudine: First Line Regimen: 4 mg/kg taken orally twice daily Lopinavir/Ritonavir: First Line Regimen: taken orally twice daily. Dosage depends on age and weight.

Ritonavir: First Line Regimen taken orally twice a day. Started at 250 mg/m^2 Abacavir sulfate: Second Line Regimen: 8 mg/kg taken orally twice daily. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.

Didanosine: Second Line Regimen: Either 100 mg/m^2 or 120 mg/m^2 taken orally twice daily. Dosage depends on age.

Efavirenz: Second Line, once daily Nevirapine: Second Line, once daily

Drug: Abacavir sulfate
Second Line Regimen: 8 mg/kg taken orally twice daily. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.
Other Names:
  • ABC
  • Ziagen

Drug: Didanosine
Second Line Regimen: Either 100 mg/m^2 or 120 mg/m^2 taken orally twice daily. Dosage depends on age. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.
Other Names:
  • ddI
  • Videx

Drug: Efavirenz
Second Line Regimen: taken orally once daily. Dosage depends on weight. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.
Other Names:
  • EFV
  • Stocrin

Drug: Lamivudine
First Line Regimen: 4 mg/kg taken orally twice daily
Other Names:
  • 3TC
  • Epivir

Drug: Lopinavir/Ritonavir
First Line Regimen: taken orally twice daily. Dosage depends on age and weight.
Other Names:
  • LPV/r
  • Kaletra

Drug: Nevirapine
Second Line Regimen: 150 - 200 mg/m^2 taken orally twice daily. Guidelines for switching from first line to second line therapy are available in the protocol.
Other Names:
  • NVP
  • Viramune

Drug: Zidovudine
First Line Regimen: 240 mg/m^2 taken orally twice daily
Other Names:
  • AZT
  • Retrovir




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Time to Failure of First Line Therapy or Death [ Time Frame: From date of randomization up to failure of first-line therapy or death from any cause, whichever came first, assessed up to 4.8 years ]
    To compare time to failure of first line ART (due to clinical, virological or immunological disease progression, or regimen-limiting ART toxicities) or death among three randomized arms (infants who receive early ART in Arms 2 and 3 and infants in whom ART is deferred until clinical or immunological disease progression in Arm 1) during the study (up to 4.8 years). The number of participants experiencing the events did not reach the 50% survival and thus median time-to-event is not be presented. Therefore we report the number of participants experiencing the events per Arm.

  2. Number of Participants Who Experienced Immunological Failure Defined as Failure of CD4% to Reach 20% or CD4% Falls Below 20% on Two Occasions, Within 4 Weeks, at Any Time After the First 24 Weeks of Therapy (Initial Therapy or Restart) [ Time Frame: This outcome was assessed from the date of randomization to immunological failure. Immunological failure was assessed in the entire study duration of 4.8 years. ]
    This was part of the primary outcome measure above. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint. The primary outcome analysis only considered the initially enrolled children that were 377 in total (ART-Deferred n=125, Early therapy 40 weeks n=126 and Early therapy 96 weeks n=126). This was part of the primary outcome measure that was a composite endpoint.

  3. Number of Participants Who Experienced Regimen-limiting ART Drug Toxicity [ Time Frame: Regimen limiting drug toxicity was monitored from randomization up to the entire study duration of 4.8 years. ]
    Development of toxicity requiring more than one drug substitution within the same class or a switch to a new class of drugs (regimen-limiting toxicity failure) or requiring a permanent treatment discontinuation. This was part of the primary outcome measure that was a composite endpoint.

  4. Number of Participants Who Experienced Clinical Failure (Defined as Development of Severe CDC Stage B or Stage C Disease.) on Therapy. [ Time Frame: Clinical failure on therapy was assessed at each visit for the entire study duration of 4.8 years. ]
    This included development of severe CDC Stage B or Stage C disease.This was part of the primary outcome measure that was a composite endpoint

  5. Number of Participants Who Experienced Virological Failure Defined as Confirmed HIV-1 RNA Value of at Least 10,000 Copies Per/ml Recorded on Two Consecutive Separate Occasions After 24 Weeks of Treatment (Initial Therapy or Restart) [ Time Frame: Virological failure was assessed from randomization through the entire study duration of 4.8 years. ]
    This was part of the primary outcome measure that was a composite endpoint that included confirmed HIV-1 RNA value of at least 10,000 copies per/ml recorded on two consecutive separate occasions after 24 weeks of treatment (initial therapy or restart).


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Children Experiencing Severe CDC Stage B or Stage C Disease or Death (Cumulative After 3.5 Years) [ Time Frame: Occurrence of severe CDC Stage B or Stage C disease or death (cumulative after 3.5 years), whichever came first, was assessed from randomization up to at least 3.5 years. ]
    The outcome measure is defined as a number because it represents the number of children that experienced severe CDC Stage B or Stage C disease or death as defined in the outcome measure title above

  2. Total Occurrence of Grade 3 or 4 Clinical Events [ Time Frame: 4.8 years ]
    This was a secondary outcome measure that assessed the total count of Grade 3 or 4 (clinical or laboratory) adverse events.

  3. Total Occurrence of Grade 3 or 4 Laboratory Events [ Time Frame: From randomization up to 4.8 years ]
  4. Time From Randomization to Starting or Needing to Start Continuous Therapy [ Time Frame: 4.8 years ]
    Time from randomization to starting (deferred therapy Arm) or needing to start continuous therapy (early therapy 40 or 96 weeks)

  5. Number of Participants With Indicated Viral Resistance Mutations at the Time of Failure of First Line Therapy [ Time Frame: 4.8 years ]
    Resistance testing was performed on samples with a VL≥1000 c/ml together with the matched baseline sample, if available. Reverse transcriptase (NRTI and NNRTI) and protease (PI) inhibitor mutations were analysed using a validated in-house population-based sequencing assay and the IAS 2011 mutation list.

  6. Time to Death Alone or Death Plus Life Threatening Stage C Events or HIV Events Associated With Permanent End-organ Damage. [ Time Frame: 4.8 years ]
    This was a composite endpoint in which the number of children experiencing the events is reported. The number of participants experiencing the events did not reach the 50% survival and thus median time-to-event is not be presented. Therefore, we report the number of participants experiencing the events per Arm.

  7. Hospitalization Rates [ Time Frame: 4.8 years ]
    Hospitalisation rates in the three arms enrolled in the CHER study

  8. Duration of Hospitalisation [ Time Frame: 4.8 years, the study duration ]
    This is the total number of days spent in hospital by the participants and is reported per arm

  9. Time to First Hospitalization [ Time Frame: From randomization up to 4.8 years ]
    To compare time to first hospitalization in the three randomized arms (infants who received early ART in Arms 2 and 3 and those who received deferred ART in Arm 1). Not all participants were hospitalized and thus the upper limits could not be evaluated.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   6 Weeks to 12 Weeks   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria for Infants:

NOTE: Per Letter of Amendment dated 04/04/07, Part B of this study is no longer recruiting participants. Per Letter of Amendment dated 09/16/08 Arm 1 of this study is longer recruiting.

  • HIV infected
  • Antiretroviral naive. Infants who have previously received antiretroviral drugs used to prevent mother-to-child transmission are eligible for the study.
  • Parent or legal guardian willing to provide informed consent and comply with study requirements

Exclusion Criteria for Infants:

  • Any major life-threatening congenital abnormalities
  • Severe CDC Stage B or C disease
  • Liver enzyme, absolute neutrophil count, hemoglobin, electrolyte, creatinine, or clinical toxicity of Grade 3 or higher at screening
  • Any acute or clinically significant medical event that would preclude participation in the study. Randomization can take place as soon as the incurrent illness has resolved if the child is still less than or equal to 12 weeks of age.
  • Use of investigational drugs
  • Require certain medications. More information on this criterion can be found in the protocol.
  • Inability to tolerate oral medication
  • Birth weight less than 2 kg (4.4 lbs)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00102960


Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Investigators
Principal Investigator: James McIntyre, MBChB, MRCOG Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand
Study Chair: Avy Violari, MBChB, FCPSA Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand
Study Chair: Mark F. Cotton, PhD Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch

Publications:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):

Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00102960     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CIPRA ZA 002
10404 ( Registry Identifier: DAIDS ES )
CHER ( Registry Identifier: DAIDS ES )
5R01AI062512-02 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
CIPRA-SA Project 2 ( Other Identifier: CIPRA )
First Posted: February 7, 2005    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: November 30, 2018
Last Update Posted: November 30, 2018
Last Verified: November 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Plan Description: Data may be made available through a formal request to the protocol team

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Infant
Perinatal
HIV
Disease Transmission, Vertical
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Treatment Interruption
Treatment Naive
Acute Infection
Mother-to-Child Transmission

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Infection
Communicable Diseases
HIV Infections
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Slow Virus Diseases
Ritonavir
Lopinavir
Lamivudine
Zidovudine
Nevirapine
Abacavir
Didanosine
Efavirenz
Dideoxynucleosides
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-HIV Agents
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents