Comparison of Fluconazole vs Voriconazole to Treat Fungal Infections for Blood and Marrow Transplants (BMT CTN 0101)

This study has been completed.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Medical College of Wisconsin Identifier:
First received: January 9, 2004
Last updated: August 5, 2015
Last verified: August 2015
The study is designed as a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, prospective, comparative study of fluconazole versus voriconazole for the prevention of fungal infections in allogeneic transplant recipients. Recipients will be stratified by center and donor type (sibling vs. unrelated) and will be randomized to either the fluconazole or voriconazole arm in a 1:1 ratio.

Condition Intervention Phase
Drug: Fluconazole
Drug: Voriconazole
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized Double-blind Trial of Fluconazole Versus Voriconazole for the Prevention of Invasive Fungal Infections in Allogeneic Blood and Marrow Transplant Patients (BMT CTN #0101)

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Medical College of Wisconsin:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Fungal-free Survival (Percentage of Participants Alive and Free From Proven, Probable, or Presumptive Invasive Fungal Infection) at 180 Days Post-transplant [ Time Frame: 180 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Frequency of Invasive Fungal Infections (IFI) [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incidence of proven, probably, or presumptive IFI

  • Percentage of Patients With Invasive Fungal Infection at 100, 180, and 365 Days [ Time Frame: 100, 180, and 365 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Overall Survival [ Time Frame: 100, 180, and 365 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Relapse Free Survival [ Time Frame: 100, 180, and 365 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Frequency of Use of Amphotericin B or Caspofungin [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Duration of Use of Amphotericin B or Caspofungin [ Time Frame: 180 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Time to and Severity of Acute and Chronic Graft vs Host Disease (GVHD) [ Time Frame: 100 and 365 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Utility of Galactomannan Assay in Diagnosis of Aspergillus and Response to Therapy [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Although there were 82 Galactomannan (GM) positives, 4 were excluded due to piperacillin/tazobactam administration, without other documentation of IFI, and were deemed false positives.

  • Time to Neutrophil Engraftment [ Time Frame: 28 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Time to Platelet Engraftment [ Time Frame: 180 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Failure to Engraft [ Time Frame: day 42 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Freedom From Possible, Presumptive, Probable, or Proven Invasive Fungal Infection, Death, or Withdrawal of Study Drug Due to Toxicity, Intolerance, or an Empirical Trial of Amphotericin B or Caspofungin Greater Than 14 Consecutive Days [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

Enrollment: 600
Study Start Date: November 2003
Study Completion Date: September 2007
Primary Completion Date: September 2006 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Fluconazole
The dose of fluconazole is 400 mg by mouth or intravenous drip.
Drug: Fluconazole
Fluconazole will be administered orally once daily. Fluconazole capsules should be taken at least one hour before or one hour after a meal. If oral drug is not possible, it will be given intravenously once daily in a total volume of 200 mL in patients > 12 years. For adults, each 200 mL infusion will be administered over 2 hours. In patients < 12 years, intravenous doses will be prepared.
Other Name: Diflucan
Experimental: Voriconazole
The dose of oral voriconazole is 200 mg twice daily. When voriconazole must be given intravenously, it will be given at a dose of 200 mg every 12 hours for the duration of intravenous therapy.
Drug: Voriconazole
Voriconazole will be administered orally twice daily. Voriconazole capsules should be taken at least one hour before or one hour after a meal. Taken concomitantly with food, bioavailability of voriconazole is reduced. If oral drug is not possible, it will be given intravenously at a dosage of 200 mg every 12 hours over two hours in patients > 12 years. Each voriconazole dose will be diluted to a total volume of 200 mL in patients > 12 years. Volumes of the formulation required to provide 4 mg/kg doses for children age < 12 years.
Other Name: Vfend

Detailed Description:


Allogeneic blood and marrow transplant patients are highly susceptible to invasive fungal infection prior to engraftment, due to neutropenia and mucosal injury. After engraftment, an impairment of cell mediated immunity from graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the use of aggressive immunosuppressive therapies, such as corticosteroids, leave patients vulnerable to invasive fungal infections. Recipients of alternate donor transplants are especially susceptible due to slow reconstitution of cell mediated immunity.

Fluconazole prophylaxis in prospective randomized trials of both autologous and allogeneic transplant recipients has been demonstrated to reduce invasive fungal infections due to yeasts prior to engraftment. A prolonged course of fluconazole given during the first 75 days (to cover the early post-engraftment period of risk) is highly effective in the prevention of early and later yeast infections. This has translated into a survival benefit. A recent analysis of long-term outcomes of these individuals demonstrated a continuing benefit beyond the course of prophylaxis with a further benefit in survival. In another study of various factors associated with survival after matched unrelated donor transplants, fluconazole prophylaxis was an independent predictor for overall survival in a multivariate analysis. Fluconazole prophylaxis has been found to be effective and safe with few substantive drug interactions and has been widely adopted by transplant clinicians.


This is a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, prospective, comparative study of fluconazole versus voriconazole for the prevention of fungal infections in allogeneic hematopoietic transplant recipients and cord blood recipients in children under the age of 12. Prior to the start of the pre-transplant conditioning regimen, participants will give written informed consent and be screened for eligibility. Participants who meet all entry criteria will be assigned randomly to voriconazole or fluconazole within 72 hours of Day 0. Participants will begin the study drug on Day 0 (after completion of the conditioning regimen). Day 0 is defined as the day infusion of the stem cell product is completed. The study drug will be continued until Day 100 following transplant or until one or more criteria for early withdrawal are met. Continuation of the study drug beyond Day 100 is permitted for participants who meet specific criteria. The development of any fungal infection during prophylaxis will be classified according to the definitions listed in the protocol.


Ages Eligible for Study:   2 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Must receive an allogeneic peripheral blood or marrow transplant from a family or unrelated donor, or for children under the age of 12, a cord blood transplant from either a sibling or other donor
  • Must have a 5 or 6 of 6 human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-matched donor. The match may be determined at serologic level for HLA-A and HLA-B loci. For sibling donors, matching may be determined at serologic level for HLA-DR; for unrelated donors, matching for HLA-DRB1 must be at the high-resolution molecular level
  • Must have one of the following underlying diseases:

    1. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
    2. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
    3. Acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL)
    4. Acute biphenotypic leukemia in first or second complete remission
    5. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in either chronic or accelerated phase
    6. One of the following myelodysplastic syndrome(s) (MDS):

      1. Refractory anemia
      2. Refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts
      3. Refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia
      4. Refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and ringed sideroblasts
      5. Refractory anemia with excess blasts-1 (5-10% blasts)
      6. Refractory anemia with excess blasts-2 (10-20% blasts)
      7. MDS, unclassified
      8. MDS associated with isolated del (5q)
      9. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML)
    7. Lymphoma (including Hodgkin's) with chemosensitive disease (at least 50% response to chemotherapy) and receiving a related donor transplant
  • Receiving myeloablative conditioning regimens
  • Adequate physical function (cardiac, hepatic, renal, and pulmonary), within 6 weeks of initiation of conditioning (preferably within 4 weeks) unless otherwise specified
  • Baseline galactomannan blood samples drawn within 30 days prior to randomization with the results available prior to randomization (72 hours prior to transplant)
  • Chest computed tomography (CT) scans within 6 weeks prior to randomization if the results of the baseline galactomannan blood sample are not available prior to randomization (72 hours prior to transplant)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Invasive yeast infection within the 8 weeks prior to conditioning regimen initiation. Patients are eligible if colonized or have had superficial infection. Patients with a history of candidemia greater than 8 weeks prior to conditioning must have a negative blood culture within 14 days of conditioning (within 7 days is recommended), no clinical signs of candidemia, and may not still require antifungal therapy
  • Presumptive, proven, or probable aspergillus or other mold infection or deep mycoses (including hepatosplenic candidiasis) within 4 months prior to conditioning regimen initiation
  • Uncontrolled viral or bacterial infection at the time of study registration
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding. Women of child-bearing age must avoid becoming pregnant while receiving antifungal agents
  • Karnofsky performance status less than 70% or Lansky status less than 50% for patients under 16 years old unless approved by the medical monitor or protocol chair
  • History of allergy or intolerance to azoles (e.g., fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole)
  • Requiring therapy with rifampin, rifabutin, carbamazepine, cisapride (Propulsid®), terfenadine (Seldane®), astemizole (Hismanal®), ergot alkaloids, long-acting barbiturates, or who have received more than 3 days treatment with rifampin or carbamazepine within 7 days prior to conditioning regimen initiation. Patients on therapeutic anticoagulation with coumadin (1 mg/day for port prophylaxis is permitted)
  • Receiving sirolimus
  • Prolonged QTc syndrome at study entry
  • HIV positive
  • Receiving another investigational drug unless cleared by the medical monitors
  • Received a prior allogeneic or autologous transplant
  • Active central nervous system disease
  • On fungal prophylaxis during conditioning regimen (it is recommended that fungal prophylaxis be suspended once patient is enrolled)
  • Prior cancer, other than resected basal cell carcinoma or treated carcinoma in-situ. Cancer treated with curative intent less than 5 years previously will not be allowed unless approved by the medical monitor or protocol chair. Cancer previously treated with curative intent over 5 years ago will be allowed
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00075803

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Sponsors and Collaborators
Medical College of Wisconsin
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Study Director: Mary Horowitz, MD Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research
  More Information

Additional Information:
Responsible Party: Medical College of Wisconsin Identifier: NCT00075803     History of Changes
Obsolete Identifiers: NCT00322088
Other Study ID Numbers: BMTCTN0101  BMT CTN 0101  U01HL069294 
Study First Received: January 9, 2004
Results First Received: February 22, 2013
Last Updated: August 5, 2015
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government
United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by Medical College of Wisconsin:
Myelodysplastic and Myeloproliferative Diseases

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Communicable Diseases
Antifungal Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Steroid Synthesis Inhibitors
Hormone Antagonists
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors processed this record on August 25, 2016