A Study of Peer Education to Prevent HIV Transmission Among Injection Drug Users and Their HIV Risk Contacts

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First received: June 4, 2002
Last updated: October 29, 2009
Last verified: March 2006

Injection drug use is the major mode of HIV transmission in many countries. Injection drug users (IDUs) transmit HIV not only through shared drug injection equipment but also through heterosexual and homosexual transmission and mother-to-child transmission. Studies have shown that peer education programs can reduce HIV risk behavior in IDUs. However, it is not known if reduced HIV risk behavior leads to fewer HIV infections. The purpose of this study is to find out if a peer education program can reduce the number of new HIV infections by changing the behavior of IDUs and their HIV risk contacts.

Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections
Behavioral: Peer HIV Education Program
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Phase III Randomized Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Network-Oriented Peer Education Intervention for the Prevention of HIV Transmission Among Injection Drug Users and Their Network Members

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Estimated Enrollment: 2610
Detailed Description:

More than 20 years of research in implementing interventions for IDUs indicate that HIV transmission among these users can be prevented, slowed, and stopped with the appropriate intervention. Intervening early with multiple strategies can prevent epidemic spread and its consequences. Even after prevalence has increased substantially, prevention interventions can reduce the further spread of HIV in drug-using populations and transmission into other populations. Although research results have been promising, it is unknown if self-reported behavior change is correlated with reducing rates of HIV transmission. This study will determine the efficacy of a peer-educator, network-oriented intervention to prevent HIV transmission among substance users and their risk network members. IDUs will be recruited using street and community outreach methods in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai, Thailand and in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Individuals at the study clinics will undergo a screening survey and HIV counseling and testing; they will return to the clinic to receive their HIV test results, post-test counseling, and further screening. Those who are HIV uninfected, meet preliminary eligibility requirements, and are willing to participate will be enrolled as index participants. Each index participant will be asked to identify and attempt to recruit at least two other people (potential network members) whom he/she has had sex with or taken drugs with in the 3 months prior to screening. Infected and uninfected network members will be eligible for enrollment. Index participants will be randomly assigned with their network members to either the intervention group or a control group. All participants will receive HIV counseling and regular HIV testing. Index participants assigned to the intervention group attend six, two-hour peer educator-training sessions over a period of 4 weeks. The training sessions focus on skills building and promotion of risk-reducing behaviors. A one-hour booster training session is held for index participants after their 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments.

The study will last approximately 48 months, with enrollment expected to take about 30 months. Participants will be followed for a minimum of 18 months and a maximum of 30 months. Both index participants and network members have follow-up visits every 6 months, at which they will complete surveys designed to assess HIV risk behavior, network characteristics, the intensity of the intervention delivery, and social harms that may be associated with study participation. Average network HIV incidence rates will be compared for the two study groups.

NOTE: as of January 31, 2006, the HPTN 037 trial was terminated. Participants enrolled in the study will continue to be followed at a reduced number of study visits.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

NOTE: as of January 31, 2006, the HPTN 037 trial was terminated. Participants enrolled in the study will continue to be followed at a reduced number of study visits.

Inclusion Criteria for Index Participants

  • HIV uninfected within 60 days of study entry
  • Injected drugs at least 12 times in the last 3 months
  • Out of methadone maintenance treatment for at least 3 months and have relapsed
  • Willing to identify and attempt to recruit at least two HIV risk network members who are eligible for study
  • Able to recruit at least one HIV risk network member eligible for study participation

Inclusion Criteria for Network Members

  • Recruited by an eligible index participant for the study
  • Have injected drugs with and/or had sex with the relevant index participant within 3 months prior to screening

Exclusion Criteria

  • For index participants: prior or concurrent enrollment in another HIV behavioral or biomedical prevention study (e.g., vaccine or microbicide research, or any other behavioral or clinical research to test an intervention aimed at preventing or reducing the risk of HIV infection)
  • Already enrolled in another network of HPTN 037 as a network member or index participant
  • Mental, learning, or any other problems that would interfere with the study
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00038688

United States, Pennsylvania
RAP Office
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19123
Univ of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Research Institute for Health Sciences
Chiang Mai, Thailand, 50202
Sponsors and Collaborators
Study Chair: Carl Latkin, PhD Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University
  More Information

Additional Information:
Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00038688     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: HPTN 037
Study First Received: June 4, 2002
Last Updated: October 29, 2009
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Health Education
Substance Abuse, Intravenous
Program Evaluation
Peer Group
HIV Seronegativity
Substance-related Disorders

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on September 03, 2015