We updated the design of this site on September 25th. Learn more.
Show more
ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Radiation Therapy With or Without Antiandrogen Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I or Stage II Prostate Cancer

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00002597
First Posted: February 27, 2004
Last Update Posted: June 6, 2017
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborator:
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
  Purpose

RATIONALE: Radiation therapy (RT) uses high-energy x-rays to damage tumor cells. Androgens can stimulate the growth of prostate cancer cells. Hormone therapy using flutamide, goserelin, and leuprolide may fight prostate cancer by reducing the production of androgens. It is not yet known which regimen of antiandrogen therapy is most effective for prostate cancer.

PURPOSE: Randomized phase III trial to study the effectiveness of radiation therapy with or without antiandrogen therapy in treating patients who have stage I or stage II prostate cancer.


Condition Intervention Phase
Prostate Cancer Drug: flutamide Drug: Zoladex Drug: Lupron Radiation: radiation therapy Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A PHASE III TRIAL OF THE STUDY OF ENDOCRINE THERAPY USED AS A CYTOREDUCTIVE AND CYTOSTATIC AGENT PRIOR TO RADIATION THERAPY IN GOOD PROGNOSIS LOCALLY CONFINED ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE PROSTATE

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Overall Survival Rate (10-year) [ Time Frame: From date of randomization to 10 years ]
    Overall survival (OS) was calculated from randomization to the date of death from any cause and overall survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Disease-specific Survival Rate (10 Years) [ Time Frame: From registration to 10 years ]
    Disease-specific failure is defined as death certified as due to prostate cancer (by central review), death due to complications of treatment (irrespective of malignancy status), death from unknown causes with active malignancy, or death from unknown causes with previously documented relapse (either clinical or biochemical). Survival rates were estimated by means of cumulative incidence functions.

  • Local Progression Rate (10 Years) [ Time Frame: From registration to 10 years ]
    Local progression defined as documented local progression as determined by clinical exam . Failure rates were estimated by means of cumulative incidence functions.

  • Distant Failure Rate (10 Years) [ Time Frame: From registration to 10 years ]
    Failure is defined as documented metastatic disease. Failure rates were estimated by means of cumulative incidence functions.

  • Biochemical Failure Rate (10 Years) [ Time Frame: From registration to 10 years ]
    The Phoenix definition of biochemical failure was used - an increase in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of >2 ng per milliliter above the nadir. Failure rates were estimated by means of cumulative incidence functions.

  • Clinical Relapse Rate (10 Years) [ Time Frame: From registration to 10 years ]
    Clinical relapse is defined as local progression or distant metastases. Failure rates were estimated by means of cumulative incidence functions.

  • Second Biochemical Relapse Rate (10 Years) [ Time Frame: From registration to 10 years ]
    Second biochemical relapse is as defined as follows (after initiation of salvage hormone therapy): A rise in PSA on at least two consecutive cases above the nadir (after initiation of salvage hormone therapy), with the rises in PSA exceeding 1 ng/ml above the nadir; or failure to reach 4 ng/L or less at 18 months. The rates of second biochemical relapse were estimated by means of cumulative incidence functions.

  • Disease-free Survival Rate (10 Years) [ Time Frame: From registration to 10 years ]
    Disease-free failure is defined as documentation of progression (local progression, distant failure, and biochemical failure) or death from any cause. Disease-free survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method.

  • Positive Re-biopsy Rate at Two Years [ Time Frame: From registration to two years ]
    The rate of prostate rebiopsy at two years is defined as the proportion of patients whose results are positive among all eligible patients who had a repeat biopsy at two years. The rate was estimated separately in each arm.


Enrollment: 2028
Study Start Date: October 1994
Primary Completion Date: July 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Neoadjuvant TAS + RT
Neoadjuvant total androgen suppression (TAS) - Flutamide and Zoladex or Lupron - two months before and during radiation therapy.
Drug: flutamide
Two 125 mg capsules (t.i.d., p.o.) beginning two months before RT and continuing until RT is completed.
Other Name: Eulexin
Drug: Zoladex
3.6 mg s.c. monthly x 4 beginning two months before RT and continuing until RT is completed. The 3-month preparation may be used instead of three separate monthly injections.
Other Name: goserelin acetate
Drug: Lupron
7.5 mg IM (intramuscular) monthly x 4 beginning two months before RT and continuing until RT is completed. The 3-month preparation may be used instead of three separate monthly injections.
Other Name: leuprolide acetate
Radiation: radiation therapy
46.8 Gy (1.8 Gy/day four to five times a week [26 fx]) to regional lymphatics followed by 19.8 Gy (1.8 Gy/day x 11 fx) for a total of 66.6 Gy to the prostate. Prostate only may be treated in defined circumstances.
Radiation therapy alone
Radiation therapy alone
Radiation: radiation therapy
46.8 Gy (1.8 Gy/day four to five times a week [26 fx]) to regional lymphatics followed by 19.8 Gy (1.8 Gy/day x 11 fx) for a total of 66.6 Gy to the prostate. Prostate only may be treated in defined circumstances.

Detailed Description:

OBJECTIVES: Primary: To evaluate whether a combination of Zoladex and flutamide used as cytoreductive agents prior to and during definitive radiation therapy improves overall survival over radiation therapy alone in locally confined carcinomas of the prostate; Secondary: To compare the rates of disease-specific survival, clinical relapse (local progression and/or distant failure), freedom from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure, freedom from second clinical relapse, freedom from second PSA relapse, and disease-free survival; To compare the prostate re-biopsy at two years; To measure the effect on sexual function.

OUTLINE: This is a randomized, multicenter study. Patients were stratified by PSA level (less than 4 vs 4-20), tumor differentiation (well vs moderate vs poor), nodal status (N0 [nodes evaluated by surgical sampling] vs NX [nodes evaluated negative by imaging methods only]), and participating center. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms. Arm I: Patients receive oral flutamide 3 times a day and goserelin subcutaneously once every 4 weeks, or once as a time release injection (intramuscular leuprolide may be substituted for goserelin), beginning 2 months prior to radiotherapy and continuing until completion of radiotherapy. Patients undergo radiotherapy daily 4-5 days per week for almost 8 weeks. Arm II: Patients undergo radiotherapy only, as in arm I. Patients are followed every 3 months for the remainder of the first year, every 4 months for the second year, every 6 months for the third through fifth years, and then annually thereafter.

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 1980 patients within 5 years.

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion criteria:

  • Histologically confirmed locally confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate with primary tumors confined to the prostate, clinical stage T1b,1c, 2a or 2b.
  • Negative nodes evaluated by imaging methods (classified in the study as NX) or by surgical sampling (classified in the study as N0).
  • Karnofsky performance status ≥ 70.
  • PSA is mandatory, must be ≤ 20)
  • No prior hormonal therapy, radiation or chemotherapy.
  • Prior finasteride for prostate hypertrophy allowed if discontinued at least 60 days prior to randomization.
  • Prior testosterone administration allowed if at least 90 days elapsed since last administration.
  • No evidence of distant metastasis or other synchronous primary. Patients with prior invasive malignancy who were disease free for at least 5 years could be eligible with pre-randomization approval by the study chairman.
  • Treatment begins within 21 days after randomization.
  • Patients signs a study-specific informed consent form.
  • Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) within 2x upper normal limits.

Exclusion criteria:

  • Stage T1a or ≥ T2c disease.
  • Lymph node involvement (N1 - N3).
  • Evidence of distant metastasis. (M1)
  • PSA > 20.
  • Radical surgery or cryosurgery for carcinoma of the prostate, previous irradiation, antiandrogen therapy or chemotherapy.
  • Previous or concurrent cancers other than basal cell or squamous cell skin carcinoma.

Patients with squamous cell carcinomas required to be NED (no evidence of disease) for a minimum of two years prior to study entry.

  • Major medical or psychiatric illness which, in the investigator's opinion, would prevent completion of treatment and would interfere with follow-up.
  • Karnofsky performance status of < 70.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00002597


  Show 239 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Investigators
Study Chair: David G. McGowan, MD Cross Cancer Institute at University of Alberta
  More Information

Publications:
McGowan D, Hunt D, Jones C, et al.: Effect of short-term endocrine therapy prior to and during radiation therapy on overall survival in patients with T1b-T2b adenocarcinoma of the prostate and PSA equal to or less than 20: initial results of RTOG 94-08. [Abstract] 2010 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, March 5-7, 2010, San Francisco, California. A-6, 2010.
Bruner D, Scott C, McGowan D, et al.: Factors influencing sexual outcomes in prostate cancer patients enrolled on radiation therapy oncology group studies 90-20 and 94-08. [Abstract] Proceedings of the International Society for Quality of Life Research 7: 575, 1998.
Bruner DW, Scott CB, McGowan D, et al.: Validation of the sexual adjustment questionnaire (SAQ) in prostate cancer patients enrolled on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group studies 90-20 and 94-08. [Abstract] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42 (suppl 1): A-156, 202, 1998.

Responsible Party: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00002597     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: RTOG-9408
CDR0000063821
First Submitted: November 1, 1999
First Posted: February 27, 2004
Results First Submitted: May 8, 2017
Results First Posted: June 6, 2017
Last Update Posted: June 6, 2017
Last Verified: May 2017

Keywords provided by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group:
adenocarcinoma of the prostate
stage I prostate cancer
stage IIB prostate cancer
stage IIA prostate cancer

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Prostatic Neoplasms
Genital Neoplasms, Male
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Neoplasms
Genital Diseases, Male
Prostatic Diseases
Leuprolide
Goserelin
Flutamide
Fertility Agents, Female
Fertility Agents
Reproductive Control Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Antineoplastic Agents
Androgen Antagonists
Hormone Antagonists
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists