Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are diagnostic tests that allow researchers to look at different chemical properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy studies can be used to gather or evaluate information about various aspects of patient s bodies or to monitor changes in the biochemistry and physiology of patient s bodies.
Unlike other diagnostic techniques (CT scan and PET scan) MRI and MRS do not use ionizing radiation. Some studies have shown that MRI is more effective at distinguishing normal parts of the anatomy from abnormal anatomy, especially in the brain. MRI has become the diagnostic test of choice for evaluating patient with multiple sclerosis.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate normal volunteers and patients with a variety of diseases with magnetic resonance imaging. Researchers will attempt different magnetic resonance imaging methods and techniques as well as different levels of magnetic strength.
Primary Outcome Measures:
- Success of new sequences [ Time Frame: 10 scan comparison ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
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MRI is a constantly evolving imaging modality and MR. Pulse sequences are often modified to improve their performance. However, many of these changes have not yet been approved by the FDA and therefore, are not considered standard of care. Some of these sequences require the use of new types of imaging coils, which are also investigational. The major purpose of this protocol is to inform patients undergoing MR scans in the Clinical Center that they may undergo scans that are not FDA approved and to get the patient's consent for this. This is not a formal research study since specific disease entities and specific pulse sequences are not studied in a systematic way. Rather, the purpose is to give NIH patients access to gradual improvements in MR technology that would otherwise not be available to them. A secondary purpose is to inform patients about the risks of MRI and gadolinium chelates which are commonly employed in MRI.