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The Effects of Zidovudine on the Blood of HIV-Infected Patients

This study has been completed.
Glaxo Wellcome
Information provided by:
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier:
First received: November 2, 1999
Last updated: February 25, 2011
Last verified: February 2011

To define the pharmacokinetic parameters (blood levels) of total phosphorylated zidovudine (AZT) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-infected patients.

Despite an understanding of the serum (or plasma) pharmacokinetics (blood levels) of AZT, a therapeutic concentration range and optimal dosing interval have not yet been determined.

Condition Intervention
HIV Infections
Drug: Zidovudine

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Pharmacokinetics of Total Phosphorylated Zidovudine in Mononuclear Cells From HIV-Infected Patients

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Estimated Enrollment: 20
Primary Completion Date: August 1993 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Detailed Description:

Despite an understanding of the serum (or plasma) pharmacokinetics (blood levels) of AZT, a therapeutic concentration range and optimal dosing interval have not yet been determined.

Three studies are planned on two separate patient groups. Group (1) Patients who have never taken AZT start on a standard dose of AZT. Blood samples are taken hourly for an 8-hour period on days 1 and 14. Other blood samples are taken on days 2, 4, and 8. Group (2) Patients who have never taken AZT are given a standard dose for the first week, increasing each week until week 5. Blood samples are taken at the end of each weekly treatment. After 4 weeks of standard treatment, patients in groups 1 and 2 return and receive a single morning dose of oral AZT. Blood samples are taken immediately before dosing and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after dosing. After a 48-hour clearance period, patients return and resume dosing. Blood samples are again taken over an 8-hour period. After 24 weeks of standard treatment, the pharmacokinetic studies are repeated.


Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria

Concurrent Medication:


  • FDA-approved anti-pneumocystis and antifungal prophylactic or suppressive regimens.
  • Acyclovir for up to 3 weeks intermittently.

Patients must:

  • Meet current guidelines for receiving prescription zidovudine.
  • Have written informed consent from both subject and parent or guardian if under 18. Be capable of understanding and giving informed consent. Women and minorities are actively encouraged to participate.

Exclusion Criteria

Co-existing Condition:

Patients with the following conditions or symptoms are excluded:

  • Malabsorption syndrome (3 or more loose stools/day for at least 4 weeks associated with unintentional weight loss of greater than 10 percent of body weight).

Concurrent Medication:


  • Probenecid or non-FDA approved investigational drugs.
  • Systemic chemotherapy.
  • Other antiviral agents, licensed or investigational, including ganciclovir, foscarnet, ribavirin, didanosine (ddI), dideoxycytidine (ddC), and dideoxydidehydrothymidine (D4T).

Chronic acyclovir.


Patients with the following are excluded:

  • Active bacterial, fungal, or viral infection requiring systemic therapy not specifically allowed.
  • Significant, chronic medical conditions that could impair compliance with study treatment.

Prior Medication:


  • Zidovudine (AZT).
  • Systemic chemotherapy within previous 6 months.
  • Acyclovir within 30 days of study entry.

Risk Behavior:


  • Unable to take oral medication reliably.
  • Alcohol or drug abuse that could impair compliance with study treatment.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00000965

United States, Ohio
Univ of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 452670405
Sponsors and Collaborators
Glaxo Wellcome
Study Chair: B Stretcher
Study Chair: P Frame
Study Chair: A Pesce
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications: Identifier: NCT00000965     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: ACTG 161
Study First Received: November 2, 1999
Last Updated: February 25, 2011
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Leukocytes, Mononuclear
Drug Evaluation
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
AIDS-Related Complex

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
HIV Infections
Immune System Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Lentivirus Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Slow Virus Diseases
Virus Diseases
Anti-HIV Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Pharmacologic Actions
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Therapeutic Uses processed this record on February 26, 2015