Soft Drinks and Osteoporosis in WHI Participants
Osteoporotic fractures, as a consequence of a reduced mineral bone density (BMD) represents a major public health problem. The lifetime risk of fractures exceeds 40% for women and 13% for men. At least ten different individual characteristics have already been proposed, evaluated, and some of them accepted as risk factors. Some of those risk factors were compiled in a tool developed by the World Health Organization in order to predict the ten-risk for a new fracture, even without considering BMD in that prediction . Increased consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been reported to have associations to a lower bone mineral density and an increment in bone fractures among young and also elder subjects.
However, some prospective studies have not found any significant associations and others suggested that risk is only increased for some kinds of beverages, like cola beverages, but not to the entire universe of soft drinks. In this sense, a large prospective analysis performed on 1413 women and 1125 men from the Framingham Offspring Cohort, analyzed- the relation between soft drinks consumption and BMD at the spine and 3 hip sites. Cola intake was associated with significantly lower BMD at each hip site, but not the spine, in women but not in men. Similar results were observed for diet cola and, although weaker, for decaffeinated cola. No significant relations between non-cola carbonated beverage consumption and BMD were observed.
In spite of the fact that reduced bone mineral density and osteoporotic fractures represent an increasing burden of disease and disability in postmenopausal women, most of the studies performed in this population used BMD as primary outcome, and not common osteoporotic fractures (e.g. hip, spine or wrist). Therefore, there is no conclusive evidence of a potential causal association between soft drinks (cola and non-cola) and fractures in a population in which osteoporotic fractures hold the highest incidence.
This research proposal is based on using the Women Health Initiative data to analyze the relation between cola and non-cola soft drinks consumption on common osteoporotic fractures. BMD will be considered a secondary outcome.
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Retrospective
|Official Title:||Association Between Soft Drink Consumption and Osteoporotic Fractures Among Postmenopausal Women: The Women´s Health Initiative|
- Lumbar spine osteoporosis [ Time Frame: median 16 years ]Bone mineral density lumbar spine measured in grams/square centimeters
- Total hip osteoporosis [ Time Frame: median 16 years ]Bone mineral density at the total hip measured in grams/square centimeters
- Hip fractures [ Time Frame: median 16 years ]Number of participants that suffered a hip fracture
|Actual Study Start Date:||July 1, 2016|
|Study Completion Date:||May 1, 2017|
|Primary Completion Date:||May 1, 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Other: Soft drinks