Treating Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) With Metformin
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00063232|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 24, 2003
Results First Posted : July 20, 2011
Last Update Posted : July 20, 2011
Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with progressive liver disease, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Although the cause of NASH is unknown, it is often associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. At present, there are no approved treatments for NASH patients, but an experimental approach has focused on improving their insulin sensitivity. Metformin is one of the most commonly used medications for the treatment of diabetes.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the medical problems of NASH patients, specifically liver damage, improves when their insulin sensitivity is enhanced with metformin.
The study will last 3 to 5 years and will enroll up to 30 patients. Participants will undergo a complete medical examination, a series of lab tests, and a liver biopsy. They will then start taking a single 500-mg tablet of metformin once a day for 2 weeks, then the same dosage twice a day for 2 more weeks, if they tolerate the first dosage. The dosage will increase to 1,000 mg twice a day for the remaining 44 weeks of the study. After 1 year, participants will undergo a repeat medical examination and liver biopsy.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Hepatitis||Drug: Metformin||Phase 2|
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of diseases ranging from simple fatty liver (steatosis) to steatosis with inflammation and necrosis to cirrhosis, that occurs in persons who drink little or no alcohol. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) represents the more severe end of this spectrum and is associated with progressive liver disease, fibrosis and cirrhosis. The etiology of NASH is unclear, but it is often associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. We have recently conducted a study of a 48-week course of pioglitazone in 21 non-diabetic patients with NASH. Serum aminotransferase levels and liver histology improved in most patients and the improvements correlated with changes in insulin sensitivity. These results are promising, but pioglitazone is associated with significant weight gain, is quite expensive, and its long-term safety is yet to be proven. In contrast, metformin is inexpensive, extremely well tolerated, and of proven long-term safety in patients with diabetes and pre-diabetes.
In this study, we propose to treat 20 non-diabetic patients with NASH with metformin for 48-weeks. After an initial evaluation for insulin sensitivity, fat distribution and liver biopsy, patients will receive gradually increasing doses of metformin orally to a maximum of 2000 mg daily. Patients will be monitored at regular intervals for symptoms of liver disease, side effects of metformin and serum biochemical and metabolic indices. At the end of 48-weeks, patients will have a repeat medical evaluation and liver biopsy. Pre and post treatment liver histology, fat distribution and insulin sensitivity will be compared. The primary end point of successful therapy will be improvement in hepatic histology as determined by reduction of at least three points in NASH activity score. Secondary end points will be improvement in insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and liver biochemistry.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||28 participants|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis With Metformin|
|Study Start Date :||June 2003|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||March 2008|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||March 2008|
- Drug: Metformin
After complete medical evaluation and liver biopsy, patients who qualified for therapy were started on metformin in an initial dose of 500 mg once daily. After 2 weeks, the dose was increased to 500 mg twice daily and after 4 weeks to the full dose of 1000 mg twice daily. Subsequent dose reductions were carried out based on tolerance, with particular attention to gastrointestinal upset and abdominal bloating. Patients were seen in the out-patient clinic, had a brief medical history and examination and routine blood tests at 2 and 4 weeks after enrolment and every 4 weeks thereafter. The oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests were repeated after 40 and 44 weeks respectively and liver biopsy and imaging tests at 48 weeks. Metformin was discontinued after 48 weeks in patients without diabetes on the pre-treatment evaluation.
- Change in the Histological NASH Activity Index at 48 Weeks Compared With Baseline (Number of Participants in Each Change Category) [ Time Frame: from baseline to 48 Weeks ]Patients under went liver biopsy, metabolic profiling and imaging studies before and at the end 48 weeks of metformin (2000 mg/day) therapy. The primary endpoint is a three point improvement in the histological NASH activity index with a decrease in at least two of the component scores and no worsening of fibrosis or increase in Mallory bodies.
- Change in Serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Levels From Baseline (Number of Participants in Each Change Category) [ Time Frame: from baseline to 48 weeks ]Alanine transaminase <42 U/L is considered normal
- Change in Insulin Sensitivity (Glucose Tolerance, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistence (HOMA-IR)) From Baseline [ Time Frame: from baseline to 48 weeks ]HOMA-IR is calculated from Fasting Glucose and Fasting Insulin
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00063232
|United States, Maryland|
|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|