Efficacy and Safety of Ketogenic Diet as Adjunctive Treatment in Adults With Refractory Epilepsy (KD)
|Study Design:||Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Ketogenic Diet as Adjunctive Treatment in Adults With Refractory Epilepsy: a Pilot Study.|
- Change from baseline in epileptic seizure frequency. [ Time Frame: baseline, 8 months ]
Seizure frequency, adverse events and treatment compliance will be reviewed. The diet will be reviewed with the subject by the nutritionist before treatment initiation. Seizure frequency will be counted using a daily seizure diary. Subject's neurological and other clinical progress since the last visit will be reviewed. Concurrent medications will be documented. Vital signs and weight will be obtained, and a complete physical and neurological examination will be performed. Body mass index will be calculated. Subjects seizure/urine ketone diary will be reviewed at each visit.
Treatment compliance will be evaluated with urine ketone levels using the diaries and with serum b-hydroxy-butyrate (b-OH-butyrate, BOH) levels.
- Evaluate the number of participants with adverse events. [ Time Frame: baseline, 8 months ]Adverse events and treatment compliance will be reviewed.Subject's neurological and other clinical progress since the last visit will be reviewed.
- Changes from baseline in Quality of life. [ Time Frame: baseline, 8 months ]Quality of life will be evaluated with a standardized questionnaire of quality of life in patients with epilepsy, QOLIE-31-P.
- Changes from baseline in alertness. [ Time Frame: baseline, 8 months ]Alertness will be evaluated with Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
|Study Start Date:||January 2013|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||December 2017|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||December 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: ketogenic diet
Treatment will consist of KD will consist of 3:1 [fat]: [protein + carbohydrate] weight ratio, with 1600 kcal restriction for patients with body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 21. The diet will be initiated with a 24 hour fast to induce ketosis. The diet will be supplemented with vitamins, calcium and phosphorus supplements to meet the requirements of US Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) standard. If seizure frequency does not improve after 3 months of KD treatment, [fat]: [protein + carbohydrate] weight ratio will be increased to 4:1
Other: ketogenic diet
KD will consist of 3:1 [fat]: [protein + carbohydrate] weight ratio, with 1600 kcal restriction
The goal of the present open label study is to obtain pilot data to evaluate the efficacy and safety of KD in adults with intractable epilepsy. Investigators will evaluate the effect of KD on seizure frequency and on adverse events. Investigators will also evaluate serum levels of the ketone body, βhydroxybutyrate (BOH) and of glucose in order to determine whether changes in serum levels of these substances correlate with KD-associated changes in seizure frequency. The data from the present study will be used to design a large randomized study.
Laboratory evaluations will include complete blood count (CBC), serum electrolytes, including calcium, phosphate and magnesium, renal and liver functions, including total protein and albumin, uric acid, fasting serum lipid profile, glucose and b- hydroxybutyrate (BOH) levels, serum carnitine level, serum a.m. trough antiepilepsy drugs levels, and urine calcium and creatinine level. They will be obtained twice at baseline a month apart and monthly during KD treatment.
Primary outcome measures will include average monthly seizure frequency and adverse events. Secondary outcome measures will include treatment compliance, quality of life questionnaire (QOLIE-31-P) scores, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01906398
|United States, Maryland|
|MidAtlantic Epilepsy and Sleep Center|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20817|
|Principal Investigator:||Pavel Klein, MD||Mid-Atlantic Epilepsy and Sleep center|