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Intranasal Esketamine to Maintain the Antidepressant Response to IV Racemic Ketamine

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT04856124
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : April 23, 2021
Last Update Posted : April 23, 2021
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
michael banov, Psych Atlanta

Brief Summary:
This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of intranasal esketamine as maintenance antidepressant therapy in patients who have demonstrated clinical improvement with off-label intravenous racemic ketamine for treatment-resistant depression.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Treatment Resistant Depression Drug: Intranasal esketamine

Detailed Description:
This is a retrospective case series of ten consecutive outpatients with treatment-resistant depression who all had a clinically meaningful response when treated with intravenous racemic ketamine and were then switched to intranasal esketamine for maintenance therapy. Efficacy and adverse effects were assessed at each treatment All patients underwent an extensive consenting process with a detailed discussion about the off-label use of IV racemic ketamine for TRD and known risks of the treatment. Other available approved therapies were offered including alternative medication, TMS, ECT, and VNS. All patients signed an informed consent form prior to treatment and a consent form allowing their data to be used for retrospective research reporting. All patients had baseline lab work and an electrocardiogram to determine medical stability. Patients were encouraged to undergo a series of six ketamine infusions over 14 to 21 days. If a response (>50% improvement) or partial response (25-50% improvement) occurred as determined by a reduction of Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9), and/or a Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) rating of 3 or more and infusions were well tolerated, patients were offered weekly infusions for four weeks. Patients then had the option of receiving successive maintenance infusions with variable frequency depending on individual patient response and preference. Vital sign and clinical monitoring, dosing, and frequency of IV ketamine treatment were based on the published available data in this area.Treatment with IV ketamine was initiated at subanesthetic doses of 0.5mg/kg with flexible dosing based on response and tolerability up to 1.0mg/kg. Patient's oxygen saturation, blood pressure, and pulse were monitored continuously with pulse oximetry and Caretaker ® finger sensor. Patients that transitioned to IN esketamine received an initial dose of 28mg (n=1) or 56mg (n=9) of IN esketamine and all patients were eventually titrated up to a target dose of 84mg for the remainder of treatments. All patients were monitored as required by the REMS protocol for IN esketamine. Prior to treatment at the beginning of each clinic visit, MADRS and PHQ-9 were completed. CGI ratings were obtained by the treating physician at each treatment. All treatments were administered on-site at the clinic and any adverse effects related to treatment with IV ketamine or IN esketamine were captured through spontaneous reporting and rated as mild, moderate, and severe at the discretion of the treating psychiatrist.

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Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 10 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Retrospective
Official Title: Switching to Intranasal Esketamine Maintains the Antidepressant Response to Intravenous Racemic Ketamine Administration: A Case Series of 10 Patients
Actual Study Start Date : September 1, 2018
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 15, 2020
Actual Study Completion Date : March 1, 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Antidepressants

Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment
Treatment resistant depressed outpatients
Subjects had a clinically meaningful response to IV racemic ketamine and remained on other psychotropic medications during treatment with both IV ketamine and IN esketamine. Concomitant medication classes included CNS stimulants (n = 7), atypical antipsychotics (n = 6), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 5), serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (n = 4), anticonvulsants (n = 3), antipsychotics (n = 3), mood stabilizers (n = 3), benzodiazepines (n = 2), norepinephrine/dopamine reuptake inhibitors (n = 2), alpha 2 antagonists (n=1), and sedative hypnotics (n = 1). Two patients (20%) previously underwent ECT with partial but transient relief from depressive symptoms, two (20%) failed TMS, and no patients reported any period of greater than 50% improvement during their current depressive episode prior to ketamine treatment.
Drug: Intranasal esketamine
Subjects with a clinically meaningful response to IV racemic ketamine were switched to IN esketamine
Other Name: IV racemic ketamine

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Depression relapse based on MADRS

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Patient-Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Depression relapse based on PHQ-9

  2. Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale- CGI-I [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Depression relapse based on CGI-I

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
Six females and four males with a mean age of 41.1 years. Nine (90%) had one or more psychiatric diagnoses, including generalized anxiety disorder (n = 9), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 4), post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 3), and panic disorder (n = 1). Six (60%) were unemployed at baseline due to the disabling effects of their depression and five (50%) reported daily suicidal ideation prior to treatment. The duration of the current depressive episode ranged between 5 and 20 years.

Inclusion Criteria:

Diagnosis of major depression, recurrent, severe without psychotic symptoms according to criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V). Must be diagnosed with Treatment resistant depression.

18 years old and up Patients had a clinically meaningful response to a course of IV racemic ketamine

Exclusion Criteria:

Active substance abuse, psychosis, significant medical comorbidities, or axis II diagnosis that would interfere with the reliability of outcome measures or response to pharmacotherapy.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT04856124

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United States, Georgia
Marietta, Georgia, United States, 30060
Sponsors and Collaborators
Psych Atlanta
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: michael banov, Michael Banov MD, DFAPA, Psych Atlanta Identifier: NCT04856124    
Other Study ID Numbers: #1262
First Posted: April 23, 2021    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: April 23, 2021
Last Verified: April 2021

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant
Depressive Disorder
Mood Disorders
Mental Disorders
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anesthetics, Dissociative
Anesthetics, Intravenous
Anesthetics, General
Central Nervous System Depressants
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Excitatory Amino Acid Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antidepressive Agents
Psychotropic Drugs