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Functional Assessment in Elderly MI Patients With Multivessel Disease (FIRE)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03772743
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : December 11, 2018
Last Update Posted : August 20, 2019
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Consorzio Futuro in Ricerca

Brief Summary:

Elderly patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI) and multivessel disease are the highest risk population with the worst prognosis. No trial has ever been designed to optimize their outcome. The actual real-life standard of care is, in the best of the cases, culprit only revascularization. However, real-life registries show that outcome of MI elderly patients treated with this strategy is far from being optimal with at least a 15% rate of cardiac death or myocardial infarction at 1 year. To date, studies on this population have been focused on devices (bare metal stent vs biodegradable drug eluting stent) or on dual antiplatelet regimen (long vs short) and no study was focused on evaluating if complete revascularization is able to improve the prognosis in these patients. The contemporary complete revascularization is represented by a functionally-driven revascularization that recently showed to significantly reduce myocardial infarction rate and outperformed an angio-complete revascularization. Thus, our hypothesis is that a functionally-driven complete revascularization in elderly patients with MI and multivessel disease may improve prognosis compared to the actual standard of care in these patients, namely culprit only revascularization. Being a "strategy" trial, we identified the patient-oriented composite endpoint (POCE) as primary outcome of interest (all cause death, any MI, any stroke, any revascularization).

Several pre-specified substudies have been planned. A detailed list of the substudies is available in the website of the trial (

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Myocardial Infarction Other: Culprit-only revascularization Other: Complete functionally-guided revascularization Not Applicable

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Detailed Description:


Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most frequent clinical presentation in older adults (≥75 years). Registry data shows that up to 65% of patients ≥75 years with AMI has multivessel disease, namely at least one lesion beyond the culprit one with diameter stenosis >50% and located in a coronary artery different from the culprit vessel. Presence of multivessel disease is a marker of worse prognosis. The rate of adverse events, such as death and MI is 3-fold higher in multivessel disease patients if compared to single vessel disease patients. During a 3-5 years follow-up, the number of adverse events related to non-culprit lesions is double than the one related to culprit lesions (data from SWEDEHEART registry and PROSPECT trial). These adverse events are even more frequent in older adults reaching a 15-30% incidence at 1 year. Several studies were focused on older adults with AMI in order to optimize their treatment. The main focus of those studies were: optimal dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration and type of stent. As for DAPT, data is in favour of a short regimen (1-6 months) as it represents the best balance between ischemic protection and reduction of bleeding events. In both LEADERS FREE and ZEUS trials, age was the main criteria for enrollment and it was considered as a marker of high risk of bleeding event. In the ongoing XIENCE 28 study, age ≥75 years is considered a sufficient criteria to prescribe 28 days of DAPT after stent implantation.

As for stent type, the recent SENIOR trial showed that biodegradable polymer second generation drug eluting stents (DES) are the gold standard in older adults receiving percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). These stents clearly outperformed bare metal stents with a low event rate in presence of a short DAPT regimen. Thus, at the present time, we have sufficient data to consider biodegradable polymer DES and short DAPT as cornerstones of the treatment in older adults with MI. On the contrary, we have no scientific evidence regarding the best treatment strategy to apply in multivessel disease patients. It is not clear whether to prefer a culprit only strategy or if revascularization of non-culprit lesions is associated to a reduction of adverse events.

Culprit lesion treatment with PCI and stent implantation in MI setting is universally agreed as gold standard since it reduces morbidity and mortality. In the last 10 years, several studies were focused on the treatment of non-culprit lesions. PRAMI, CULPRIT, DANAMI 3 PRIMULTI, COMPARE ACUTE trial tried to assess if a systematic treatment of non-culprit lesions was associated with an improved prognosis if compared to a culprit only strategy. All these studies showed that complete revascularization clearly reduce the risk of repeated revascularizations. However, no study showed a significant impact on death or MI. When pooled in a meta-analysis, we can observe a trend in favour of MI reduction but data cannot be considered as conclusive. In 2019, COMPLETE trial results will be disclosed. In COMPLETE trial, more than 4000 patients were enrolled with consequent power to detect a difference in terms of death and MI. The limits of all the above mentioned studies are that the mean age was around 60 years and that only ST-segment elevated MI (STEMI) patients were included. No study included a relevant portion of patients ≥75 years nor included no-STEMI (NSTEMI) patients. However, a culprit lesion is identifiable in more than 90% of NSTEMI patients and the issue on their management is similar to the one of the STEMI patients. In addiction, in older adults, clinical presentation is as NSTEMI in more than 70% of the cases. Consequently, it is mandatory to generate solid data on the correct treatment strategy in these patients.

In younger adults (<65 years), in concordance with the solid scientific evidences, it is widespread a complete revascularization strategy. In older adults (≥75 years), also guidelines, in absence of clear data, suggest a case-by-case decision and suggest to consider age as one of the determinants of the final decision (Class IIa level of evidence C, ESC NSTEMI guidelines). Both European and American registry data shows clearly that the most frequently applied strategy is the culprit only one, both in STEMI and NSTEMI patients. Also in the LEADERS FREE trial, patients ≥75 years had multivessel disease in 65% of the cases, but in more than 80% of them, treatment was limited to the culprit lesion. In conclusion, the actual gold standard of treatment in older adults with MI and multivessel disease is the culprit-only strategy. The traditional concept of complete revascularization was based on angiography. Operator visually identified the lesions >50% and decided to treat or not each one of them. Contemporary data on fractional flow reserve and instantaneous free-wave ratio demonstrated that an angio-guided strategy is similar to a coin toss in terms of detection of lesions causing ischemia. This leads to unnecessary PCIs or avoided necessary PCIs in more than 50% of the cases. Studies on angio-complete revascularization probably failed to show an MI reduction because of this reason. In addition, long-term follow-up data of lesions functionally deferred shows that the rate of death and MI at 5 years is below 3%. As a consequence, functional revascularization should be considered as contemporary strategy to achieve a real complete revascularization.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 1385 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: All comers, prospective, randomized, multicenter, open-label trial with blinded adjudicated evaluation of outcomes (PROBE).
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Functional Versus Culprit-only Revascularization in Elderly Patients With Myocardial Infarction and Multivessel Disease
Actual Study Start Date : July 15, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2025

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Heart Attack

Arm Intervention/treatment
Culprit-only revascularization
All patients randomized to culprit only revascularization must not undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) any lesion except from the culprit lesion already treated at the moment of the randomization. Staged procedures are considered protocol violation.
Other: Culprit-only revascularization
Implantation of drug eluting stents with biodegradable polymer with struts ≤65 μ in the culprit lesion of the MI. Each patient should receive revascularization with Supraflex stent or its newer versions

Complete functionally-guided revascularization
Patients who are randomized to this strategy will receive revascularization of the culprit lesion and guided by functional assessment on all non-culprit lesions. Functional evaluation is mandatory for all stenosis with diameter stenosis % between 50 and 90% at visual estimation. Revascularization must be guided by functional assessment on all vessels. The system utilized to obtain functional evaluation is left to Operator's discretion. PCI is allowed only if functional evaluation is positive according to the threshold of the chosen functional system. It is suggested to achieve functional complete revascularization within the index procedure, while it is mandatory to obtain it within the index hospitalization.
Other: Complete functionally-guided revascularization
Implantation of drug eluting stents with biodegradable polymer with struts ≤65 μ in the culprit lesion of the MI and in all non culprit lesions with positive functional assessment. Each patient should receive revascularization with Supraflex stent or its newer versions

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Patient oriented cardiac events [ Time Frame: 1-year ]
    cumulative occurrence of all-cause death, any MI, any stroke, any coronary revascularization

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Patient oriented cardiac events [ Time Frame: 3-year ]
    cumulative occurrence of all-cause death, any MI, any stroke, any coronary revascularization

  2. Patient oriented cardiac events [ Time Frame: 5-year ]
    cumulative occurrence of all-cause death, any MI, any stroke, any coronary revascularization

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   75 Years and older   (Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Patients ≥75 years AND
  2. MI (ST-segment elevation or not ST.segment elevation MI) with indication to invasive management AND
  3. Multi-vessel disease defined as at least 1 non-culprit coronary artery lesion at least 2.5 mm in diameter deemed at visual estimation with a diameter stenosis % ranging from 50 to 99% amenable to successful treatment with PCI AND
  4. Successful treatment of culprit lesion

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Planned surgical revascularization
  2. Non-cardiovascular co-morbidity reducing life expectancy to < 1 year
  3. Any factor precluding 1-year follow-up
  4. Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
  5. Impossibility to identify a clear culprit lesion

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03772743

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Contact: Veronica Lodolini, Bs 0532236450 ext +39
Contact: Roberta Piadena 0223992999 ext +39

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Maria Cecilia Hospital Recruiting
Cotignola, Ravenna, Italy
Contact: Francesco Giannini         
Ospedale Maggiore Not yet recruiting
Bologna, Italy
Contact: Gianni Casella         
Casa di Cura San Michele Maddaloni Recruiting
Caserta, Italy
Contact: Pietro Landoni         
AOU Ferrara Recruiting
Ferrara, Italy, 44124
Contact: Simone Biscaglia         
Casa di Cura Montevergine Recruiting
Mercogliano, Italy
Contact: Angelo Cioppa         
Ospedale Civile di Baggiovara Not yet recruiting
Modena, Italy
Contact: Marco Ruozzi         
Ospedale Santa Maria delle Croci Recruiting
Ravenna, Italy
Contact: Luca Fileti         
Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova Not yet recruiting
Reggio Emilia, Italy
Contact: Vincenzo Guiducci         
Ospedale Infermi Recruiting
Rimini, Italy
Contact: Andrea Santarelli         
Ospedale Umberto I Recruiting
Siracusa, Italy
Contact: Giorgio Sacchetta         
Ospedale San Giovanni Evangelista Recruiting
Tivoli, Italy
Contact: Mauro Pennacchi         
Ospedale di Rivoli Recruiting
Torino, Italy
Contact: Ferdinando Varbella         
Contact: Enrico Cerrato         
Centrum Kardiologii Inwazyjnej, Elektroterapii i Angiologii Not yet recruiting
Krosno, Poland
Contact: Marcin Nosal         
Centrum Kardiologii Inwazyjnej, Elektroterapii i Angiologii Not yet recruiting
Nowy Sącz, Poland
Contact: Dariusz Dudek         
Centrum Kardiologii Inwazyjnej Elektroterapii i Angiologii Not yet recruiting
Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Poland
Contact: Maciej Maliszewski         
Centrum Kardiologii Inwazyjnej Elektroterapii i Angiologii Not yet recruiting
Oświęcim, Poland
Contact: Witold Zmuda         
Centrum Kardiologii Inwazyjnej, Elektroterapii i Angiologii Not yet recruiting
Pińczów, Poland
Contact: Jacek Godlewski         
Podkarpackie Centrum Interwencji Sercowo-Naczyniowych Not yet recruiting
Sanok, Poland
Contact: Andrzej Wisniewski         
Szpital Powiatowy im. Tytusa Chałubińskiego Not yet recruiting
Zakopane, Poland
Contact: Bartlomiej Helmecki         
Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real Recruiting
Ciudad Real, Spain
Contact: Fernando Lozano         
Complejo Hospitalario de La Coruna Recruiting
La Coruña, Spain
Contact: Josè Manuel Vasquez Rodriguez         
Hospital Universitario Lucus Augusti Recruiting
Lugo, Spain
Contact: Raymundo Ocaranza-Sanchez         
Hospital Clinico San Carlos Recruiting
Madrid, Spain
Contact: Javier Escaned         
Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon Recruiting
Madrid, Spain
Contact: Francisco Fernandez-Aviles         
Hospital Universitario La Paz Recruiting
Madrid, Spain
Contact: Raul Moreno         
Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago Recruiting
Santiago De Compostela, Spain
Contact: Ramiro Trillo Nouche         
Hospital Universitario La FE Recruiting
Valencia, Spain
Contact: Jose Luis Diez         
Hospital Clinico Universitario Recruiting
Valladolid, Spain
Contact: Ignacio Amat Santos         
Hospital Alvaro Conqueiro de Vigo Recruiting
Vigo, Spain
Contact: Andres Iniguez         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Consorzio Futuro in Ricerca

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Responsible Party: Consorzio Futuro in Ricerca Identifier: NCT03772743     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2018
First Posted: December 11, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: August 20, 2019
Last Verified: August 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: Data will be available after motivated request to the Executive Committee of the study. All requests will be evaluated for acceptance. Positive evaluation by the Executive Committee is mandatory before data release
Supporting Materials: Study Protocol
Statistical Analysis Plan (SAP)
Informed Consent Form (ICF)
Clinical Study Report (CSR)
Time Frame: After the publication of the manuscripts reporting the primary outcome and the prespecified substudies

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Consorzio Futuro in Ricerca:
older adults
multivessel coronary disease
intracoronary physiology
functional assessment
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Myocardial Infarction
Pathologic Processes
Myocardial Ischemia
Heart Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Vascular Diseases