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Study of Pembrolizumab Given With Ipilimumab or Placebo in Participants With Untreated Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) (MK-3475-598/KEYNOTE-598)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03302234
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : October 5, 2017
Results First Posted : September 10, 2021
Last Update Posted : June 21, 2022
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC

Brief Summary:

The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of pembrolizumab given in combination with either ipilimumab or placebo as first-line treatment in participants with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The primary hypothesis of this study is that overall survival (OS) and/or progression-free survival (PFS) is prolonged in participants who receive pembrolizumab and ipilimumab compared to those who receive pembrolizumab and placebo.

With Amendment 6 (effective date: 11-Dec-2020), active participants, investigator, and sponsor personnel or delegate(s) involved in the treatment administration or clinical evaluation of the participants will be unblinded. Participants will discontinue ipilimumab and placebo and participants who remain on treatment will receive open-label pembrolizumab only.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung Biological: Pembrolizumab Biological: Ipilimumab Other: Placebo Phase 3

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 568 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of Pembrolizumab Plus Ipilimumab vs Pembrolizumab Plus Placebo in Previously Untreated, Stage IV, Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Subjects Whose Tumors Are PD-L1 Positive (TPS ≥ 50%) (KEYNOTE-598)
Actual Study Start Date : December 14, 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 1, 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : September 7, 2022

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Pembrolizumab + Ipilimumab
Participants receive 200 mg of pembrolizumab by intravenous (IV) infusion on Day 1 of each 3-week cycle for up to 35 cycles of treatment plus 1 mg/kg of ipilimumab by IV infusion on Day 1 of each 6-week cycle for up to 18 cycles of treatment.
Biological: Pembrolizumab
Administered as an intravenous (IV) infusion every 3 weeks (Q3W)
Other Names:
  • KEYTRUDA®
  • MK-3475

Biological: Ipilimumab
Administered as an IV infusion every 6 weeks (Q6W)
Other Name: YERVOY®

Active Comparator: Pembrolizumab + Placebo
Participants receive 200 mg of pembrolizumab by IV infusion on Day 1 of each 3-week cycle for up to 35 cycles of treatment plus placebo by IV infusion on Day 1 of each 6-week cycle for up to 18 cycles of treatment.
Biological: Pembrolizumab
Administered as an intravenous (IV) infusion every 3 weeks (Q3W)
Other Names:
  • KEYTRUDA®
  • MK-3475

Other: Placebo
Normal saline solution administered as an IV infusion Q6W




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall Survival (OS) [ Time Frame: Up to approximately 32 months (through data cut-off date: 01 Sep 2020) ]
    OS was defined as the time from randomization to death due to any cause. Participants without documented death at the time of analysis were censored at the date of last known contact. The median survival (in months) and the associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported using Kaplan-Meier method was used. Cox regression model with Efron's method of tie handling with treatment as a covariate stratified by ECOG performance status (0 versus 1), geographic region of the enrolling site (East Asia versus non-East Asia), and predominant tumor history (squamous versus non-squamous) was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CIs for first course study treatment per protocol.

  2. Progression-free Survival (PFS) Per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) Based on Blinded Independent Central Review (BICR) [ Time Frame: Up to approximately 32 months (through data cut-off date 01 Sep 2020) ]
    PFS was defined as the time from randomization to the first documented disease progression (PD) per RECIST 1.1 based on BICR or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. PD is defined as ≥20% increase in sum of diameters of target lesions. In addition to relative increase of 20%, sum must also demonstrate an absolute increase of ≥5 mm. The appearance of one or more new lesions is also considered PD. RECIST 1.1 has been modified to follow a maximum of 10 target lesions and a maximum of 5 target lesions per organ. The median survival (in months) and associated 95% CIs were reported using Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression model with Efron's method of tie handling with treatment as covariate stratified by ECOG performance status (0 vs. 1), geographic region of the enrolling site (East Asia vs. non-East Asia), and predominant tumor history (squamous vs. non-squamous) was used to estimate HR and 95% CIs for first course study treatment per protocol.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Objective Response Rate (ORR) Per RECIST 1.1 Based on BICR [ Time Frame: Up to approximately 32 months (data cut-off date 01 Sep 2020) ]
    ORR was defined as the percentage of participants who have a Complete Response (CR: Disappearance of all target lesions) or a Partial Response (PR: At least a 30% decrease in the sum of diameters of target lesions) per RECIST 1.1 by BICR. In this study, RECIST 1.1 was modified to follow a maximum of 10 target lesions and a maximum of 5 target lesions per organ. Per protocol the ORR was calculated using the Miettinen & Nurminen method stratified by ECOG performance status (0 versus 1), geographic region of the enrolling site (East Asia versus non-East Asia), and predominant tumor history (squamous versus non-squamous) for the first course of study treatment.

  2. Duration of Response (DOR) Per RECIST 1.1 Based on BICR [ Time Frame: Up to approximately 32 months (data cut-off date 01 Sep 2020) ]
    For participants who demonstrated a confirmed CR (Disappearance of all target lesions) or confirmed PR (At least a 30% decrease in the sum of diameters of target lesions) per RECIST 1.1, DOR was defined as the time from first documented evidence of CR or PR until PD or death due to any cause, whichever occurs first. Per RECIST 1.1, PD was defined as at least a 20% increase in the sum of diameters of target lesions. In addition to the relative increase of 20%, the sum must also have demonstrated an absolute increase of at least 5 mm. The appearance of one or more new lesions was also considered PD. RECIST 1.1 was modified to follow a maximum of 10 target lesions and a maximum of 5 target lesions per organ. The DOR was calculated using the product-limit (Kaplan-Meier) method for censored data. Per protocol, the DOR for all participants who experienced a CR or PR was presented for the first course of study treatment.

  3. Time to True Deterioration (TTD) in Cough, Pain in Chest, and Shortness of Breath [ Time Frame: Up to approximately 32 months (data cut-off date 01 Sep 2020) ]
    TTD was defined as the time to the first onset of a 10-point or greater score deterioration from baseline in any one of the 3 symptoms (cough, pain in chest or shortness of breath), confirmed by a second adjacent 10-point or greater score deterioration from baseline. Cough was based on EORTC QLQ-LC13 question 1, pain in chest was based on EORTC QLQ-LC13 question 10, and shortness of breath was based on EORTC QLQ-C30 question 8. Per protocol, TTD was reported for first course study treatment.

  4. Number of Participants Who Experienced an Adverse Event (AE) [ Time Frame: Up to approximately 27 months ]
    An AE was defined as any untoward medical occurrence in a participant or clinical investigation participant administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have to have a causal relationship with this treatment. An AE can therefore be any unfavourable and unintended sign (including an abnormal laboratory finding, for example), symptom, or disease temporally associated with the use of a medicinal product or protocol specified procedure, whether or not considered related to the medicinal product or protocol specified procedure. Per protocol, the number of participants who experienced an AE were reported for the first course of study treatment and follow up.

  5. Number of Participants Who Discontinued Study Treatment Due to an AE [ Time Frame: Up to approximately 24 months ]
    An AE was defined as any untoward medical occurrence in a participant or clinical investigation participant administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have to have a causal relationship with this treatment. An AE can therefore be any unfavourable and unintended sign (including an abnormal laboratory finding, for example), symptom, or disease temporally associated with the use of a medicinal product or protocol specified procedure, whether or not considered related to the medicinal product or protocol specified procedure. Per protocol, the number of participants who discontinued study treatment due to an AE were reported for the first course of study treatment.

  6. Change From Baseline in European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (QLQ-C30) Global Health Status/Quality of Life (Items 29 and 30) Scale Score to Week 18 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 18 ]
    The EORTC QLQ-C30 is a questionnaire to assess the overall quality of life of cancer patients. Participant responses to the questions "How would you rate your overall health during the past week?" and "How would you rate your overall quality of life during the past week?" were scored on a 7-point scale (1= Very poor to 7=Excellent). Using linear transformation, raw scores were standardized, so that scores range from 0 to 100. A higher score indicates a better overall health status. Per protocol, the change from baseline in EORTC QLQ-C30 Items 29 and 30 combined score were presented for first course study treatment.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Has a histologically or cytologically confirmed diagnosis of Stage IV metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (American Joint Committee on Cancer version 8)
  • Has measurable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) as determined by investigator
  • Has Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1
  • Has a life expectancy of at least 3 months
  • Has provided archival tumor tissue sample or newly obtained core or excisional biopsy of a tumor lesion not previously irradiated
  • Female participants of childbearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test within 72 hours prior to receiving the first dose of study therapy
  • Female participants of reproductive potential must agree to use contraception starting from the first dose of study medication, throughout the study period, and for up to 120 days after the last dose of study medication

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Has received prior systemic chemotherapy/other targeted or biological antineoplastic therapy treatment for their Stage IV metastatic NSCLC
  • Has a tumor that harbors an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-sensitizing (activating) mutation or an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation
  • Is currently participating in or has participated in a trial of an investigational agent or has used an investigational device within 4 weeks prior to the first dose of study therapy
  • Has received prior therapy with an anti-Programmed Cell Death Receptor 1 (PD-1), anti-Programmed Cell Death Receptor Ligand 1 (anti-PD-L1), or anti- Programmed Cell Death Receptor Ligand 2 (PD-L2) agent or with an agent directed to another stimulatory or co-inhibitory T-cell receptor (eg, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 [CTLA-4], OX-40, CD137)
  • Has received prior radiotherapy within 2 weeks of start of study therapy or received lung radiation therapy of >30 Gray (Gy) within 6 months of the first dose of study therapy
  • Has recovered from all radiation-related toxicities, does not require corticosteroids, and has not had radiation pneumonitis
  • Is receiving systemic steroid therapy ≤7 days prior to the first dose of study therapy or receiving any other form of immunosuppressive medication
  • Has a known additional malignancy that is progressing or has required active treatment within the past 3 years with the exception of curatively treated basal cell carcinoma of the skin, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and/or curatively resected in situ cancers
  • Has known untreated central nervous system (CNS) metastases and/or carcinomatous meningitis
  • Has an active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in past 2 years (i.e., with use of disease-modifying agents, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive drugs)
  • Has a diagnosis of immunodeficiency or is receiving chronic systemic steroid therapy (i.e., doses exceeding 10 mg daily of prednisone equivalent) or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior the first dose of study therapy
  • Has a history of (non-infectious) pneumonitis that required systemic steroids or current pneumonitis/interstitial lung disease
  • Has had an allogeneic tissue/solid organ transplant
  • Has received a live vaccine within 30 days prior to the first dose of study therapy
  • Has an active infection requiring systemic therapy
  • Has a known history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • Has a known history of hepatitis B or known active hepatitis C virus infection
  • Has a known history of active tuberculosis
  • Has known psychiatric or substance abuse disorders that would interfere with cooperating with the requirements of the trial
  • Is a regular user of any illicit drugs or had a recent history of substance abuse
  • Is pregnant or breast feeding or expecting to conceive starting from the first dose of study medication, throughout the study period, and for up to 120 days after the last dose of study medication
  • Has severe hypersensitivity to pembrolizumab and/or any of its excipients and/or to ipilimumab and/or any of its excipients
  • Has a c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) mutation

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03302234


Locations
Show Show 187 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC
Investigators
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Study Director: Medical Director Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC:
Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03302234    
Other Study ID Numbers: 3475-598
MK-3475-598 ( Other Identifier: Merck )
KEYNOTE-598 ( Other Identifier: Merck )
2016-004364-20 ( EudraCT Number )
First Posted: October 5, 2017    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: September 10, 2021
Last Update Posted: June 21, 2022
Last Verified: May 2022
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: http://engagezone.msd.com/doc/ProcedureAccessClinicalTrialData.pd
URL: http://engagezone.msd.com/ds_documentation.php

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC:
Programmed Cell Death Receptor 1 (PD-1)
Programmed Cell Death Receptor Ligand 1 (PD-L1)
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4)
PD1
PD-1
PDL1
PD-L1
CTLA4
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
Carcinoma, Bronchogenic
Bronchial Neoplasms
Lung Neoplasms
Respiratory Tract Neoplasms
Thoracic Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Neoplasms
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Pembrolizumab
Ipilimumab
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Antineoplastic Agents
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action