Women Informed to Screen Depending on Measures of Risk (Wisdom Study) (WISDOM)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02620852
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : December 3, 2015
Last Update Posted : February 9, 2018
Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Color Genomics, Inc.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of California, San Francisco

Brief Summary:

Most physicians still use a one-size-fits-all approach to breast screening in which all women, regardless of their personal history, family history or genetics (except BRCA carriers) are recommended to have annual mammograms starting at age 40. Mammograms benefit women by detecting cancers early when they are easier to treat, but they are not perfect. Recent news stories have discussed some of the potential harms: large numbers of positive results that cause stressful recalls for additional mammograms and biopsies. With the current screening approach, half of the women who undergo annual screening for ten years will have at least one false positive biopsy. Potentially more important are cancer diagnoses for growths that might never come to clinical attention if left alone (called "overdiagnosis"). This can lead to unnecessary treatment. Even more concerning is evidence that up to 20% of breast cancers detected today may fall into the category of "overdiagnosis."

This proposal compares annual screening with a risk-based breast cancer screening schedule, based upon each woman's personal risk of breast cancer. The investigators have designed the study to be inclusive of all, so that even women who might be nervous about being randomly assigned to receive a particular type of care (a procedure that is typical in clinical studies) will still be able to participate by choosing the type of care they receive.

For participants in the risk-based screening arm, each woman will receive a personal risk assessment that includes her family and medical history, breast density measurement and tests for genes (mutations and variations) linked to the development of breast cancer. Women who have the highest personal risk of developing breast cancer will receive more frequent screening, while women with a lower personal risk would receive less frequent screening. No woman will be screened less than is recommended by the USPSTF breast cancer screening guidelines.

If this study is successful, women will gain a realistic understanding of their personal risk of breast cancer as well as strategies to reduce their risk, and fewer women will suffer from the anxiety of false positive mammograms and unnecessary biopsies. The investigators believe this study has the potential to transform breast cancer screening in America.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Breast Cancer Screening Breast Carcinoma in Situ Breast Cancer Other: Complete a health questionnaire Genetic: Provide a saliva sample for genetic testing Other: Screening advice based on a comprehensive risk assessment Other: Screening advice based on a basic risk assessment Not Applicable

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Detailed Description:

For almost 30 years, annual mammograms for women over 40 have been a cornerstone of the US strategy to reduce mortality from breast cancer. A number of advances in the understanding of breast cancer biology, and screening in general, have led to calls to revise and improve national screening strategies (Esserman et al., 2014). In 2009, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) introduced changes to screening guidelines, recommending that annual mammograms for all women 40-75 be replaced by biennial screening for women ages 50-75, and that screening in the 40's should be individualized by taking patient context into account, including the patient's values regarding specific benefits and harms. Despite being based on a thorough review of the scientific literature, these recommendations continue to spark debate and scientific opinion on the effectiveness of annual screening is greatly divided. On one hand the radiology and obstetrics/gynecology community argues that annual mammograms starting at 40 reduce the rate of interval cancers. On the other hand, primary care physicians and other specialists believe that annual screening results in more false-positives and unnecessary treatment and that a more targeted approach could result in fewer false-positives and less over-diagnosis without increasing the number of interval cancers. In fact it has been estimated that half of women will receive a false-positive recall over 10 years of annual screening and that as many as 20% of all breast cancers might be overdiagnosed. Since 2009 this debate has intensified, paralyzing the system and thwarting any efforts to change or improve screening. The end result is that women are frustrated and confused, and some have stopped screening altogether.

Despite a vastly improved understanding of breast cancer risk, the only criteria used to establish a woman's screening recommendations is her age (and BRCA status if known), but there are risk models available that incorporate personal and family history of breast disease, endocrine exposures and breast density to assess breast cancer risk (Constantino, et al., 1999; Parmigiani, et al., 1998; Tyrer, et al., 2004; Claus, et al., 2001; Ozanne, et al., 2003). Most recently certain genetic mutations and common genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs) have been confirmed predictors as well (Darabi, et al., 2012). Therefore, advances in this understanding of breast cancer biology, risk assessment, and imaging have enabled the creation of better tools and sufficient knowledge to replace the one-size-fits-all approach to screening and to implement a new, personalized model; one that provides recommendations on when to start, when to stop, and how often to screen that depend upon well characterized measures of risk.

The investigators propose to test a transformational evidence-based approach to breast screening that educates women about their actual risk, and tailors screening recommendations to them as individuals. Within the Athena Breast Health Network, the study will compare comprehensive, patient-centered risk-based screening to annual screening for women starting at age 40. The comprehensive risk assessment is based on a widely accepted risk model, the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium model, that includes endocrine exposures, family history and breast density, with additional genomic risk factors that include rare and uncommon major breast cancer susceptibility alleles as well as more common and recently validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can, cumulatively, contribute significantly to a woman's individual risk. The study's personalized approach will recommend an age to start and stop screening as well as a frequency based upon individual risk. Women of highest risk will receive greater surveillance than those of lowest risk where the lower bound is the USPSTF recommended guidelines. In this manner, the study will focus the most effort on those most likely to develop the disease.

In close collaboration with patient advocates, the study has been designed as a 5-year, preference-tolerant, 65,000 patient, randomized controlled trial of risk-based versus annual screening. Individuals uncomfortable with the potential to be assigned to a particular arm in the randomized cohort can participate in the self-assigned observational cohort, an example of the pragmatic approach taken. Total accrual is anticipated to be 100,000 women across both cohorts. A broad group of stakeholders have participated in crafting this approach, including advocates, payers, the entire range of medical specialists and primary care providers and researchers involved with breast cancer screening across the entire Athena Network, technology partners, the Office of the President at the University of California, and policy-making organizations.

The study hypothesizes that risk-based screening will be an improvement over annual screening because it will be as safe, less morbid, enable more cancer prevention, less stressful and more readily accepted by women as a result of an improved understanding of their personal risk.

The Athena Breast Health Network was established across the 5 University of California medical centers to develop a new, harmonized approach to breast cancer prevention, screening and treatment. Athena is among the few centers in North America to use technology to integrate risk assessment into breast screening. The investigators have developed a cadre of "breast health specialists" who provide women with counseling and support around risk and prevention. There are currently 100,000 registered Athena participants, with 30,000 new patients per year and growing with the addition of Sanford Health, one of the largest rural health networks in the country. The primary research mission of Athena is to address issues requiring a population-based approach and translate solutions to clinical practice. Athena is uniquely positioned to address the screening controversy and provide women with renewed confidence in decisions about their breast health. Risk-based screening for breast cancer is exactly the advanced, evidence-based approach to medicine described in the NIH and FDA's "Path to Personalized Medicine". If these hypotheses prove to be correct, this study will be able to establish a clear justification for its use, and provide a framework for widespread implementation that will benefit women across the country.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 100000 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Screening
Official Title: Enabling a Paradigm Shift: A Preference-Tolerant RCT of Personalized vs. Annual Screening for Breast Cancer (Wisdom Study)
Actual Study Start Date : August 31, 2016
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Breast Cancer

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Annual Arm
Women in this arm will receive Athena standard of care mammography screening, including annual mammograms. They will complete a health questionnaire and receive screening advice based on a basic risk assessment.
Other: Complete a health questionnaire
Complete a health history questionnaire.

Other: Screening advice based on a basic risk assessment
Receive a screening schedule recommendation

Experimental: Risk-Based Arm
Women in this arm will receive risk-based screening, where risk is calculated based on a model including personal history, family history, and genetic testing. All women in the risk-based arm complete a health questionnaire, provide a saliva sample for genetic testing, and receive screening advice based on a comprehensive risk assessment. Women in this arm will be tested for a panel of 9 genes related to breast cancer risk as well as a panel of SNPs, which can further modify risk. Women will be assigned a screening start date, screening stop date, and screening frequency.
Other: Complete a health questionnaire
Complete a health history questionnaire.

Genetic: Provide a saliva sample for genetic testing
Provide a saliva sample for testing of 9 genes and a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence breast cancer risk

Other: Screening advice based on a comprehensive risk assessment
Receive a screening schedule recommendation

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Late-stage cancer [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Proportion of cancers diagnosed at Stage IIB or higher

  2. Biopsy rate [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Rate of biopsies performed

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Late-stage cancers rate [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Rate of Stage IIB or higher cancers

  2. Interval cancers rate [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Rate of interval (detected within 12-24 months of a normal screen) cancers

  3. Rate of systemic therapy [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Rate of systemic therapy as measure of morbidity

  4. Mammogram recall rate [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Mammogram recall rate as measure of morbidity

  5. Breast biopsy rate [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Breast biopsy rate as measure of morbidity

  6. DCIS rate [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Rate of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as a measure of morbidity, stratified by biologic type

  7. Chemoprevention uptake rate [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Rate of uptake of endocrine prevention interventions

  8. Choice of risk-based versus annual screening in self-assigned cohort [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Proportion of participants who choose risk-based versus annual screening in the self-assigned cohort as a measure of acceptability

  9. Adherence to assigned screening schedule [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Proportion of participants who adhere to their assigned screening schedules as a measure of acceptability

  10. Breast-cancer anxiety [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Breast cancer anxiety (as measured with the PROMIS anxiety scale) as a measure of acceptability

  11. Decisional regret [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Decisional regret (as measured with the Decision Regret Scale, a 5-item Likert scale) as a measure of acceptability

  12. Ultra-low risk cancer rate [ Time Frame: 5 years ]
    Rates of ultra-low risk cancer

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Ages Eligible for Study:   40 Years to 74 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Female
  • Age 40 years old to 74 years old
  • Reside in California or receive care at a Sanford Health site

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Prior breast cancer or DCIS diagnosis
  • Non-English proficiency (plans to expand to Spanish by year 2)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02620852

Contact: Allison Fiscalini, MPH (415) 476-0267
Contact: Roxanna Firouzian, MPH (415) 476-8390

United States, California
University of California Irvine Recruiting
Irvine, California, United States, 92618
Contact: Hannah Park, PhD    949-824-2651   
Principal Investigator: Hoda Anton-Culver, PhD         
University of California Los Angeles Recruiting
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90095
Contact: Antonia Petruse, BA    310-794-0367   
Principal Investigator: Arash Naeim, MD, PhD         
University of California Davis Recruiting
Sacramento, California, United States, 95817
Contact: Skye Stewart, MS    916-734-5772   
Principal Investigator: Alexander Borowsky, MD         
University of California San Diego Recruiting
San Diego, California, United States, 92093
Contact: Tracy Layton, BA    858-534-7984   
Principal Investigator: Barbara Parker, MD         
University of California San Francisco Recruiting
San Francisco, California, United States, 94115
Contact: Irene Acerbi, PhD    415-476-0256   
Principal Investigator: Laura van 't Veer, PhD         
United States, South Dakota
Edith Sanford Breast Center Enrolling by invitation
Sioux Falls, South Dakota, United States, 57117
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, San Francisco
Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Color Genomics, Inc.
Principal Investigator: Laura Esserman, MD, MBA University of California, San Francisco

Responsible Party: University of California, San Francisco Identifier: NCT02620852     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: PCS-1402-10749
First Posted: December 3, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: February 9, 2018
Last Verified: February 2018

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by University of California, San Francisco:
Breast screening
risk assessment
Breast cancer

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Breast Neoplasms
Carcinoma in Situ
Breast Carcinoma In Situ
Neoplasms by Site
Breast Diseases
Skin Diseases
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type