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A Study of Intranasal Esketamine Plus an Oral Antidepressant for Relapse Prevention in Adult Participants With Treatment-resistant Depression (SUSTAIN-1)

This study is currently recruiting participants.
Verified November 2017 by Janssen Research & Development, LLC
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT02493868
First Posted: July 10, 2015
Last Update Posted: November 16, 2017
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Janssen Research & Development, LLC
  Purpose
The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of intranasal esketamine plus an oral antidepressant compared with an oral antidepressant (active comparator) plus intranasal placebo in delaying relapse of depressive symptoms in participants with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) who are in stable remission after an induction and optimization course of intranasal esketamine plus an oral antidepressant.

Condition Intervention Phase
Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant Drug: Esketamine Drug: Placebo Drug: Duloxetine (Oral Antidepressant) Drug: Escitalopram (Oral antidepressant) Drug: Sertraline (Oral Antidepressant) Drug: Venlafaxine Extended Release (XR) (Oral Antidepressant) Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized, Double-blind, Multicenter, Active-Controlled Study of Intranasal Esketamine Plus an Oral Antidepressant for Relapse Prevention in Treatment-resistant Depression

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Janssen Research & Development, LLC:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Time to relapse in Participants with stable remission who were randomized in the maintenance phase [ Time Frame: Time between participant randomization into the maintenance phase and the first documentation of a relapse event (up to an anticipated maximum of 104 weeks) ]
    Relapse is defined as any of the following: (1) MADRS total score greater than or equal to 22 for 2 consecutive assessments separated by 5 to 15 days (inclusive); or (2) Hospitalization for worsening depression or any other clinically relevant event determined per clinical judgment to be suggestive of a relapse of depressive illness such as suicide attempt, completed suicide, or hospitalization for suicide prevention. If hospitalized for any of these events, the start date of hospitalization will be used for the date of relapse. Otherwise the date of the event will be used if the participant is not hospitalized.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Time to relapse in Participants with Stable Response (but not in stable remission) who were randomized in the maintenance phase [ Time Frame: Time between participant randomization into the maintenance phase and the first documentation of a relapse event (up to an anticipated maximum of 104 weeks) ]
    Refer to relapse and MADRS descriptions above.

  • Change From Baseline in MADRS total score at end of the Maintenance Phase in participants who were randomized in this phase [ Time Frame: Baseline and End of Maintenanace Phase (up to an anticipated maximum of 104 weeks) ]
    The MADRS is a clinician-rated scale designed to measure depression severity and detects changes due to antidepressant treatment. The scale consists of 10 items, each of which is scored from 0 (item not present or normal) to 6 (severe or continuous presence of the symptoms), for a total possible score of 60. Higher scores represent a more severe condition. The MADRS evaluates apparent sadness, reported sadness, inner tension, sleep, appetite, concentration, lassitude, interest level, pessimistic thoughts, and suicidal thoughts.

  • Change From Baseline in Subject-reported Depressive Symptoms Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Total Score at End of the Maintenance Phase in participants who were randomized in this phase [ Time Frame: Baseline and End of Maintenance Phase (up to an anticipated maximum of 104 weeks) ]
    The PHQ-9 is a 9-item scale used to assess depressive symptoms. Each item is rated on a 4-point scale (0=not at all, 1=several days, 2=more than half the days, and 3=nearly every day). The responses for each item are summed to provide a total score (range of 0 to 27) with higher scores indicating greater severity of depressive symptoms.

  • Change From Baseline in Clinical Global Impression - Severity (CGI-S) Score at End of Maintenance Phase in participants who were randomized in this phase [ Time Frame: Baseline and End of Maintenance Phase (up to an anticipated maximum of 104 weeks) ]
    The CGI-S evaluates the severity of psychopathology on a scale of 0 to 7. Considering total clinical experience, a participant is assessed on severity of mental illness at the time of rating according to: 0=not assessed; 1=normal (not at all ill); 2=borderline mentally ill; 3=mildly ill; 4=moderately ill; 5=markedly ill; 6=severely ill; 7=among the most extremely ill patients. The CGI-S permits a global evaluation of the participant's condition at a given time.

  • Change From Baseline in Subject-reported Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) Score at End of Maintenance Phase in participants who were randomized in this phase [ Time Frame: Baseline and End of Maintenance Phase (up to an anticipated maximum of 104 weeks) ]
    The GAD-7 is a brief and validated measure of overall anxiety. Each item is rated on a 4-point scale (0=not at all; 1=several days; 2=more than half the days; and 3=nearly every day). Item responses are summed to yield a total score with range of 0 to 21, where higher scores indicate more anxiety.

  • Change From Baseline in Subject-reported Health-related Quality of Life and Health Status as Assessed by EuroQol-5 Dimension-5 Level (EQ-5D-5L) at End of Maintenance Phase in participants who were randomized in this phase [ Time Frame: Baseline and End of Maintenance Phase (up to an anticipated maximum of 104 weeks) ]
    The EQ-5D-5L is a standardized instrument for use as a measure of health outcome, primarily designed for self-completion by respondents. It consists of the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). The EQ-5D-5L descriptive system comprises the following 5 dimensions: Mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. Each of the 5 dimensions is divided into 5 levels of perceived problems (Level 1 indicating no problem, Level 2 indicating slight problems, Level 3 indicating moderate problems, Level 4 indicating severe problems, and Level 5 indicating extreme problems). The participant selects an answer for each of the 5 dimensions considering the response that best matches his or her health "today." The descriptive system can be represented as a health state. The EQ-VAS self-rating records the respondent's own assessment of his or her overall health status at the time of completion, on a scale of 0 to 100.

  • Change From Baseline in Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) Total Score at End of Maintenance Phase in participants who were randomized in this phase [ Time Frame: Baseline and End of Maintenance Phase (up to an anticipated maximum of 104 weeks) ]
    The SDS is a subject-reported outcome measure and is a 5-item questionnaire which has been widely used and accepted for assessment of functional impairment and associated disability. The first three items assess disruption of (1) work/school, (2) social life, and (3) family life/home responsibilities using a 0-10 rating scale. The score for the first three items are summed to create a total score of 0-30 where a higher score indicates greater impairment.

  • Number of Participants with Adverse Events (AEs) and Serious AEs [ Time Frame: Screening up to End of Follow-up Phase (after the last clinic visit) ]
    An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a participant who received study drug without regard to possibility of causal relationship. A serious adverse event (SAE) is an AE resulting in any of the following outcomes or deemed significant for any other reason: death; initial or prolonged inpatient hospitalization; life-threatening experience (immediate risk of dying); persistent or significant disability/incapacity; congenital anomaly.


Estimated Enrollment: 333
Actual Study Start Date: October 1, 2015
Estimated Study Completion Date: April 30, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date: April 30, 2018 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Intranasal Esketamine plus oral antidepressant
Open-Label Induction Phase: Direct-entry participants will self-administer esketamine intranasally twice per week for 4 weeks as a flexible dose regimen in the Open-label Induction Phase. Participants will initiate a new oral antidepressant on Day 1 of this phase. Optimization Phase: Direct-entry and transferred-entry participants will self-administer intranasal esketamine (same dose) at weekly treatment sessions for the first 4 weeks of this phase, then individualized to either once weekly or once every other week based on depressive symptoms. Participants continue same oral antidepressant treatment from induction phase. Maintenance Phase: Direct-entry and transferred-entry participants assigned to esketamine will self-administer intranasal esketamine (same dose) once weekly or once every other week based on depressive symptoms. Participants continue same oral antidepressant treatment from induction phase.
Drug: Esketamine
Open-label induction phase: Direct entry participants start at a dose of 56 mg on Day 1. On Day 4, the dose may be increased to 84 mg or remain at 56 mg. From Day 8 to 22, dose may be increased to 84 mg, remain the same or be reduced to 56 mg from 84 mg per protocol, at investigator's discretion based on efficacy and/or tolerability. On Day 25, a dose reduction from 84 mg to 56 mg is permitted but no dose increase is permitted. Optimization Phase: Direct-entry and transferred-entry participants will self-administer intranasal esketamine (same dose) for first 4 weeks, then individualized to either once weekly or once every other week based on depressive symptoms. Maintenance Phase: All participants assigned to esketamine will self-administer intranasal esketamine once weekly or once every other week based on depressive symptoms.
Drug: Duloxetine (Oral Antidepressant)
Duloxetine could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of Massachusetts General Hospital - Antidepressant Treatment Response Questionnaire (MGH-ATRQ) and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. The minimum therapeutic dose is 60 milligram per day (mg/day).
Drug: Escitalopram (Oral antidepressant)
Escitalopram could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Escitalopram will be titrated upto a maximum dose of 20 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 10 mg/day.
Drug: Sertraline (Oral Antidepressant)
Sertraline could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Sertraline will be titrated upto a maximum dose of 200 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 50 mg/day.
Drug: Venlafaxine Extended Release (XR) (Oral Antidepressant)
Venlafaxine Extended Release could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Venlafaxine Extended Release will be titrated upto a maximum dose of 225 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 150 mg/day.
Experimental: Placebo Plus Oral Antidepressant
Optimization Phase: Transferred-entry participants will self-administer intranasal placebo at weekly treatment sessions for the first 4 weeks of this phase, then individualized to either once weekly or once every other week based on depressive symptoms. Participants continue same oral antidepressant treatment from induction phase. Maintenance Phase: Direct-entry and transferred-entry participants assigned to intranasal placebo will self-administer intranasal placebo once weekly or once every other week based on depressive symptoms. Participants continue same oral antidepressant treatment from induction phase.
Drug: Placebo
Optimization Phase: Transferred-entry participant will self-administer intranasal placebo at weekly treatment sessions for the first 4 weeks of this phase, then individualized to either once weekly or once every other week based on depressive symptoms. Maintenance Phase: Direct-entry and transferred-entry participants assigned to placebo will self-administer matching intranasal placebo once weekly or once based on depressive symptoms.
Drug: Duloxetine (Oral Antidepressant)
Duloxetine could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of Massachusetts General Hospital - Antidepressant Treatment Response Questionnaire (MGH-ATRQ) and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. The minimum therapeutic dose is 60 milligram per day (mg/day).
Drug: Escitalopram (Oral antidepressant)
Escitalopram could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Escitalopram will be titrated upto a maximum dose of 20 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 10 mg/day.
Drug: Sertraline (Oral Antidepressant)
Sertraline could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Sertraline will be titrated upto a maximum dose of 200 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 50 mg/day.
Drug: Venlafaxine Extended Release (XR) (Oral Antidepressant)
Venlafaxine Extended Release could be selected as the oral antidepressant medication by the investigator based on review of MGH-ATRQ and relevant prior antidepressant medication information. Venlafaxine Extended Release will be titrated upto a maximum dose of 225 mg/day, but if not tolerated the dose can be reduced to the minimum therapeutic dose of 150 mg/day.

Detailed Description:
This is a randomized, double-blind (neither the researchers nor the participant know what treatment the participants is receiving), active-controlled, multicenter (more than 1 study site) study in participants with TRD to assess the efficacy of intranasal esketamine plus an oral antidepressant compared with an oral antidepressant (active comparator) plus intranasal placebo in delaying relapse of depressive symptoms. The study will consist of 5 phases: Screening/Prospective Observational Phase (4-7weeks) for direct-entry participants only, Open-label Induction Phase (4-weeks) for direct-entry participants only, Optimization Phase (12-weeks; open-label for direct-entry participants and double-blind for transferred-entry participants), Maintenance Phase (variable duration; double-blind for all participants) and Follow-up Phase (2-weeks). Participants' safety will be monitored throughout the study.
  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 64 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

For Direct-Entry Participants

  • At the time of signing the informed consent form (ICF), participant must be a man or woman 18 (or older if the minimum legal age of consent in the country in which the study is taking place is greater than [>]18) to 64 years of age, inclusive - At the start of the screening/prospective observational phase, participant must meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for single-episode major depressive disorder (MDD) (if single-episode MDD, the duration must be greater than or equal to [>=] 2 years) or recurrent MDD, without psychotic features, based upon clinical assessment and confirmed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)
  • At the start of the screening/prospective observational phase, participant must have an Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician rated ( IDS-C30) total score of greater than or equal to (>=) 34
  • At the start of the screening/prospective observational phase, participants must have had nonresponse (less than or equal to 25 percent [%] improvement) to greater than or equal to (>=1) but less than or equal to (<=) 5 oral antidepressant treatments taken at adequate dosage and for adequate duration, as assessed using the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH-ATRQ )
  • MGH-ATRQ and documented by medical history and pharmacy/prescription records, for the current episode of depression. In addition, the participant is taking different ongoing oral antidepressant treatment (on the MGH-ATRQ) for at least the previous 2 weeks at or above the minimal therapeutic dose
  • The participant's current major depressive episode, depression symptom severity (Week 1 MADRS total score >=28 required), and treatment response to antidepressant treatments used in the current depressive episode (retrospectively assessed) must be deemed valid for participation in a clinical study based on a Site-Independent Qualification Assessment For Transferred-Entry Participants
  • The participant must have completed the double-blind induction phase in ESKETINTRD3001 or ESKETINTRD3002 and must have demonstrated response at the end of that phase (>=50% reduction in the MADRS total score from baseline [Day 1 pre-randomization] at the end of the 4-week double-blind induction phase)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Participants who have previously demonstrated nonresponse of depressive symptoms to esketamine or ketamine in the current major depressive episode, to all 4 of the oral antidepressant treatment options available for the double-blind induction phase (ie, duloxetine, escitalopram, sertraline, and venlafaxine extended release [XR]) in the current major depressive episode (based on MGH-ATRQ), or an adequate course of treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the current major depressive episode, defined as at least 7 treatments with unilateral/bilateral ECT
  • Participant has received vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) or has received deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the current episode of depression
  • Participant has a current or prior DSM-5 diagnosis of a psychotic disorder or MDD with psychotic features, bipolar or related disorders (confirmed by the MINI), obsessive compulsive disorder (current only), intellectual disability (DSM-5 diagnostic codes 317, 318.0, 318.1, 318.2, 315.8, and 319), autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, or narcissistic personality disorder
  • Participant has homicidal ideation/intent, per the investigator's clinical judgment, or has suicidal ideation with some intent to act within 6 months prior to the start of the screening/prospective observational phase, per the investigator's clinical judgment or based on the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS)
  • Participants with history of moderate or severe substance or alcohol use disorder according to DSM-5 criteria
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02493868


Contacts
Contact: Use link at the bottom of the page to see if you qualify for an enrolling site (see list). If you still have questions: JNJ.CT@sylogent.com

  Show 300 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Janssen Research & Development, LLC
Investigators
Study Director: Janssen Research & Development, LLC Clinical Trial Janssen Research & Development, LLC
  More Information

Additional Information:
Responsible Party: Janssen Research & Development, LLC
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02493868     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CR107128
ESKETINTRD3003 ( Other Identifier: Janssen Research & Development, LLC )
2014-004586-24 ( EudraCT Number )
First Submitted: May 13, 2015
First Posted: July 10, 2015
Last Update Posted: November 16, 2017
Last Verified: November 2017

Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by Janssen Research & Development, LLC:
Treatment-resistant Depression
Esketamine
Placebo
Oral Antidepressant
Relapse prevention

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Depression
Depressive Disorder
Recurrence
Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant
Behavioral Symptoms
Mood Disorders
Mental Disorders
Disease Attributes
Pathologic Processes
Antidepressive Agents
Citalopram
Duloxetine Hydrochloride
Sertraline
Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
Dexetimide
Psychotropic Drugs
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Neurotransmitter Agents
Serotonin Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
Antiparkinson Agents
Anti-Dyskinesia Agents
Parasympatholytics
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Muscarinic Antagonists